Book: The Agile Gene

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AA (arachidonic acid), 119, 121

ACE gene, 93–94

Acheulean hand ax, 222–24

Adams, Douglas, 132

addiction, drug, 45–46, 147, 148

adolescence, 158–59, 239–40, 250, 256–60, 268

Ahlquist, Jon, 25

AIDS, 114

Akbar, Moghul Emperor, 169

“Albert B,” 184

Alzheimer’s disease, 27, 117, 239

amino acids, 36, 42, 165, 238

amphetamines, 108

amphibians, 17–18

amygdala, 44, 47, 48, 194

animals:

as automata, 10–11
behavior of, 9–12, 14–15, 23–24
breeds of, 49–52, 129
culture of, 209–12
domestication of, 34–35, 49–52, 129, 175–76
humans vs., 10–11, 16–17, 188
hunting traditions of, 14–15
language skills of, 15, 16–17, 215
mating behavior of, 42–48
wild, 34–35, 51, 129, 175, 192, 211
see also specific animals

anosmin, 138–40

anthropology, 12–13, 14, 20, 24, 40, 52–53, 203–7, 208, 278

ants, 241–42, 244

apes:

brains of, 209
in captivity, 8–12
common ancestor of, 24
digits of, 18
genetic makeup of, 27–29, 30
humans compared with, 8–10, 16, 17–18, 24, 27–29, 209
individuality in, 5, 13–14
language skills of, 15, 216–17, 218, 219
learning by, 211
sexual behavior of, 18
spinal cord of, 219
see also chimpanzees; gorillas; monkeys

apoD gene, 121

APOE gene, 26–27

arachidonic acid (AA), 119, 121

arcuate fasciculus, 219

arginine, 215

Aristotle, 14, 68, 237

arthritis, 118, 119

Asperger’s syndrome, 60–62, 63

ASPM gene, 36–37, 65, 90, 229

Asterix, 257–58

athletic ability, 92, 93–94, 157

attractiveness, 54–55, 262–64

auditory cortex, 64

Augustine, Saint, 14

autism:

empathy and, 60–62, 63, 211
psychological factors in, 102–3
testosterone levels and, 157

Axel, Richard, 133–34

axons, 133–38, 140–42, 196–97, 214

baboons, 15, 218

bacteria, 32, 100, 120, 235

BALB mouse strain, 148–49

Barker, David, 154–55

Baron-Cohen, Simon, 59–62

Barry, Dave, 53

Bastian, Adolf, 203

Bateson, Pat, 131, 139, 156, 278

BDNF (brain-derived neurotrophic factor), 84, 93, 132, 165–67, 250

bees, 242, 246

behavior:

abusive, 267–69, 280
aggressive, 15, 35, 43–44, 45, 48–49, 50, 52, 81–82, 163, 267–69, 280
animal vs. human, 9–12, 14–15, 23–24
antisocial, 35, 87, 267–69, 271–72
breeding for, 49–52
canalization of, 130–31
conditioned, 5, 12, 177–200
cultural influences on, 204–6
development of, 127–33, 139–40, 144–45, 245–48, 277–80
experience and, 1–2, 3, 5, 6, 18, 39, 66–67, 127–33, 137, 151–57, 245–48, 250, 277–80
genetic influences on, 3–4, 49–52, 80–82, 84–85, 92–93, 98, 127–33, 136–37, 139–40, 144–45, 188–89, 242–48, 271–75, 277–80
hereditary factors in, 5, 70–77
imitative, 209–12
innate, 5, 74–75, 127–30, 131, 151–54, 157–58, 159, 163–74, 192–95, 197, 244, 253, 257–58, 260, 277–78, 280
instinctive, 4, 5, 11, 12–14, 39–42, 49–55, 63–65, 126, 127–30, 189, 194, 240–42
learned, 39, 40, 52, 146–47
neuron activity in, 147, 212–14
peer, 256–60
qualitative vs. quantitative difference in, 16–17
social, 17–23, 59–62, 126, 146–47, 171–72, 209–12, 218, 226–27, 251–60
specialized, 21, 226–27, 258–59
survival of, 128, 221
universal characteristics of, 4, 52–56
volitional, 269–75

behaviorism, 5, 12, 153, 177–200, 251

Bell Curve, The (Herrnstein and Murray), 88, 263

Belyaev, Dmitri, 34

Benzer, Seymour, 49, 180

Berlin, Isaiah, 270–71

Bettelheim, Bruno, 102–3

Bewick, Thomas, 11

bipolar disorder, 100, 117

birds, 15, 18, 49, 66, 127, 128, 130, 131, 137, 140, 145, 159, 160, 187, 189–90, 223–24, 240–41

birth weight, 154–57, 161–62

Blanchard, Ray, 160–63, 279, 280

Blank Slate, The (Pinker), 206

Bleuler, Eugen, 99

Block, Susan, 23

blood types, 26–27

Boas, Franz, 5, 6, 40, 203–7, 229, 277–78

Bohr, Neils, 4

bonobos, 14, 18, 21–23, 35, 217

Bouchard, Thomas, 77–82, 279

brain, human:

asymmetry of, 217
cells in, 120
chemistry of, 41–43
compensation in, 64–65
degeneration of, 117–18
development of, 4, 6, 28, 35, 36–37, 41, 98–99, 100, 108–18, 124, 126, 132–33, 136–40, 144–49, 160, 166–67, 209, 228–29
evolution of, 64–65, 272–73
female vs. male, 62
foci of, 133–38, 140–44
gray matter in, 89–90, 228–29
hormonal balance in, 42–48
hypertrophied parts of, 64–65
“invisible,” 226–27
language area of, 216–22
left vs. right, 217, 273
midline nerve crossings of, 134–35, 136
modules of, 62–67, 170, 194–95, 197
motor control area of, 216–21
neurons of, see neurons
scanning of, 89, 108, 213
size of, 30, 35–37, 65, 89–90, 126, 224, 226–27, 228
vision area of, 45–46, 63, 64–67

brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), 84, 93, 132, 165–67, 250

Brave New World (Huxley), 149–50, 199

Brentano, Franz, 60

Britten, Roy, 24–25

Broca’s area, 216–17

Brooks, Alison, 225

Budiansky, Stephen, 51

Burt, Cyril, 75, 79

Burton, Richard, 69–70

Buss, David, 54–56

C57 mouse strain, 148–49

cadherins, 140–41, 143–44

Cajal, Santiago Ramon y, 134

Calvin, William, 219

campomelic dysplasia, 238

Candolle, Alphonse de, 71

Carson, Johnny, 78, 222

Carter, Sue, 43

Caspi, Avshalom, 267

Castle, William, 50

Catcher in the Rye, The (Salinger), 31

caterpillars, 49, 52

cats, 11, 30, 113, 165, 183

cattle, 30, 51–52, 175

cells:

adhesion of, 138–44
membranes of, 119–20
surface sugars of, 27–29

Chernyshevsky, Nikolai, 185

chickens, 32, 34, 135

children:

abuse of, 267–69, 280
adopted, 77–78, 83, 85–88, 105–6, 107, 110, 253–55
cataracts in, 164
developmental stages of, 125–27, 277
female vs. male, 41, 56–60, 61
“feral,” 169–70
learning by, 167–70, 210–12
personalities of, 237–38, 251–60
sexual awareness of, 158–59, 171–74
socialization of, 251–56
see also infants; twins

chimpanzees:

anatomy of, 19
bonobos compared with, 21–22, 35
brain of, 65
common ancestor of, 10, 24–25, 36
diet of, 18–19
digits of, 17–18
female, 19, 20
genetic makeup of, 24–27, 28, 30–31, 209
gorillas compared with, 18–20, 25
humans compared with, 7, 10, 23, 24–27, 28, 30, 33–34, 36, 209–12
language skills of, 16–17, 215
learning by, 8, 11–12, 15, 210–12
sexual behavior of, 14, 48
social behavior of, 11–14, 23
throwing ability of, 219
tools used by, 14–15

chlorpromazine, 108

Chomsky, Noam, 5, 40, 63–64, 144, 245

chorion, 112–13

chromosomes:

discovery of, 3
No. 1, 36, 109–10
No. 3, 46, 107, 108–9, 121
No. 5, 106–7, 115, 143–44
No. 6, 89
No. 7, 107, 115–16, 214
No. 11, 84
No. 12, 107
No. 13, 109
No. 17, 93, 107, 109
No. 19, 107
No. 20, 42
No. 21, 107
X, 138, 268
Y, 58, 160, 162, 238, 248–49, 261

Civilized Man’s Eight Deadly Sins (Lorenz), 176

classical conditioning, 183, 192, 195, 197

Clemens, Jim, 142

“cliff diseases,” 122–23

Cline, Hollis, 145–46

clozapine, 121

CMAH gene, 27–28

cognitive revolution, 63–64, 195–96

Colapinto, John, 58

Comedy of Errors, The (Shakespeare), 72

communes, 20, 200, 229–30

computers, 15, 64, 145, 197, 250

connectionists, 64, 195–99

Connellan, Jennifer, 59–60

Conrad, Joseph, 207

Copernicus, 244

Correns, Karl, 232

cortisol, 255

Cosmides, Leda, 40, 63, 245–48, 265

CREB genes, 180–81, 250, 275

Crick, Francis, 233–34, 235, 238, 247

criminality, 87, 253, 254, 267–69, 271–72

Cronk, Lee, 221–22

cuckoos, 49, 66, 128, 137, 187

culture, 201–30

adaptation in, 203–4, 228–29
animal vs. human, 209–12
artifacts of, 222–24, 227–28
as civilization, 14–15, 201–2, 206, 224–26
comparative analysis of, 202–7
genetic influence in, 80, 201, 208, 228–29, 244–45
individuality and, 204, 227, 229–30, 256–60, 267–69
innate differences of individuals in, 204, 205–6, 262–64
levels of, 7–8, 202–3
“primitive,” 202–3, 207–8
progress in, 207, 210, 222–28
specific vs. universal, 202–3, 206–8
trade in, 227–28
traditions of, 5, 12–15, 53, 201–12, 220–27

Curie, Marie, 4

D2 dopamine receptors, 45–46

Dalton, John, 231

Daly, Martin, 246

Darwin, Charles, 4–10, 15–16, 37, 38, 53, 126, 129, 187, 202, 203, 211, 233, 242, 269, 277

Darwin, Erasmus, 70

David Copperfield (Dickens), 30–31

Davis, James, 113

Dawkins, Richard, 40, 125, 131, 140, 221, 236, 237–38, 239, 241, 242–43, 244, 246, 247, 279

Deacon, Terence, 221

deafness, 168, 170, 198, 217, 220

Deb-Rinker, Paromita, 114

Delbruck, Max, 49

Dennett, Daniel, 41, 55, 60, 231

depression, 84, 85, 93, 100

Descartes, René, 10–11, 12, 14, 23, 65, 269

determinism, 74, 86, 98, 107, 128–29, 144, 149–52, 162–63, 188–89, 190, 203, 206–8, 214, 251–56, 260–64, 271–75, 277–80

“developmentalist challenge,” 128–30

De Vries, Hugo, 5, 6, 231–33, 234, 238, 247, 277

Diamond, Mickey, 56–58

diazepam, 166, 167

Dickens, Charles, 30–31

diet, 18–19, 21, 83–84, 88, 92, 118–21, 123–24, 155–57

Dirac, Paul, 4

disease, 122–23, 154–57, 234, 235, 238, 248

“Disorders Caused by the Domestication of Species-Specific Behavior” (Lorenz), 175–76

DNA:

alterations in, 27, 84–85
discovery of, 3, 233–35
molecular structure of, 24–25
promoter regions of, 32–35
replication of, 141, 142, 233–35, 237, 248
retroviral, 114–15
sequences of, 2, 23–30, 31, 32–33, 36, 45, 84, 85, 115, 141, 201, 238, 244, 272

dogs, 11, 12, 34–35, 50–51, 129, 175, 178, 179, 185, 202

dolphins, 15, 22, 209, 211

domestication, 34–36, 49–52, 129, 175–76

dopamine, 45–46, 108–9, 119, 132, 148, 179–80, 197

Down syndrome, 142

Dscam, 142–43

Dubnau, Josh, 181

ducks, 154, 175, 176

Dunbar, Robin, 218, 226

Durkheim, Émile, 5, 6, 40, 205, 259, 277–78

education, 71–72, 88, 93–94, 146, 263

Eibl-Eibesfeldt, Irenaeus, 53

Einstein, Albert, 4, 122

Ekman, Paul, 53

Elementaries (Mulcaster), 72

Eley, Thalia, 81–82

embryos, 28, 29–30, 31, 110–17, 123, 135, 138–40, 154–63, 235–36, 238

emotional development, 4, 53, 82–83, 84

empathy, 60–62, 63, 64, 210–11, 221

empiricists, 3, 5, 39, 40, 64, 74, 126, 145, 179, 197–98

English Men of Science: Their Nature and Nurture (Galton), 71

Enlightenment, 9, 201–2

environmentalists, 3, 243–44

enzymes, 27, 120, 235

ephrins, 135, 137

error back-propagation, 196, 197

essential fatty acids (EFAs), 120–21

eugenics, 74, 80–81, 96–97, 122, 174–76, 186

evolution:

Darwin’s theory of, 9–10, 37, 129, 187, 202, 203, 233
female choice in, 38–39, 223–24, 240–41
genetic evidence of, 24, 25, 28, 37
of human brain, 64–65, 272–73
instincts in, 41, 49, 194, 240–42
natural selection in, 9, 39, 40, 63, 70, 94, 128, 236–40, 241
religious opposition to, 202, 203
“second synthesis” of, 129
teleology in, 40–41

evolutionary psychology, 246–48, 265–66

exons, 115–16, 141–42, 238

experience:

behavior and, 1–2, 3, 5, 6, 18, 39, 66–67, 127–33, 137, 151–57, 245–48, 250, 277–80
deprivation of, 145–49, 163–67, 169–70
feedback from, 126, 196–98
formative, 158–59, 170
learning and, 66–67, 197–98
vicarious, 193–95

eye contact, 59–60, 61, 145–46

eyes, 134–35, 140–43

false-belief test, 61, 211

families, 85–86, 90–91, 195, 246, 256

famine, 155–57, 186–88, 250

Farber, Susan, 78–79

fascicules, 138–39

Fathers and Sons (Turgenev), 177

fatty acids, 118–21

fear, 35, 169, 170, 184, 192–95, 212, 280

fetal development, 28, 29–30, 31, 110–17, 123, 135, 138–40, 154–63, 235–36, 238

fingers, 17–18, 157–58

fish, 42, 48–49, 52, 120, 135, 136, 192

Fisher, Ronald, 236

5HT2A gene, 109

flies, 31, 49, 130, 134, 135, 136, 140–43, 180, 181, 234, 280

Flynn, James, 95

Flynn effect, 95–96

Fodor, Jerry, 63, 66, 198

folk physics, 60–62

food, 21, 83–84, 88, 120, 155–57, 178, 186–88, 209–10

Fossey, Diane, 18

fossils, 24, 25, 28, 35, 218–19, 222

foster parents, 147–49, 159, 254–55

Fourier, Charles, 230

Fox, Robin, 212

FOXP2 gene, 214–16, 219, 229, 250

Francis, Darlene, 148

fraternal birth order, 160–63

Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor, 169

Freeman, Walter, 272–73, 275

free will, 269–75

Freud, Sigmund, 5, 6, 40, 101, 102, 103, 123, 158, 170, 171–72, 251, 256, 277

Frith, Chris and Uta, 62–63

frogs, 42, 134–35, 136, 144

Fromm-Reichmann, Frieda, 102

frontal cortex, 115, 216–17, 220

fruit flies, 130, 136, 140–43, 180, 181, 234

g (general intelligence), 88–89, 90

GABA neurotransmitter, 164, 167

GAD65 gene, 166–67

Galdikas, Birute, 18

Galton, Francis, 4–5, 6, 69–76, 89, 93, 96–97, 122, 178, 199, 277

Garrod, Archibald, 234, 235, 238, 247

Geertz, Clifford, 206

Gelada baboons, 218

gender identity, 56–58, 160, 247–48, 253

“gene defense,” 271–72

genes:

for anatomical development, 31, 32–34, 37
as developmental units, 235–36, 237, 238, 248
discovery of, 231–33, 249
diseases associated with, 234, 235, 238, 248
dominant, 232
as evolutionary units, 233–34, 236, 237, 248
as hereditary particles, 231–33, 236, 237, 238, 248, 275
hox, 31–33, 34, 157
interaction of, 24–25, 29–30, 129–30, 234
“jumping,” 28, 114
metabolic, 235, 236, 238, 248
morpheus, 27
mutation of, 28, 94, 100, 116–17, 121, 122–23, 129, 139, 140, 176, 181, 214–15, 234, 269
predisposing, 113–14
promoter, 32–35, 107, 127, 235–36, 238–39, 247–48
pseudo-, 133
rare, 94
receptor, 43–45, 132, 133–40, 145, 148
recessive, 171, 232
reelin, 115–17
retroviral, 114–15
“selfish,” 236–38, 239, 241, 242–43, 247
seven meanings of, 231–48
splicing of, 141–42
terminology of, 231–36, 248
transcription factors in, 31–32, 214–15, 275
as units of instinct, 240–42
variability in, 26–27, 94, 129, 142–44

genetic engineering, 140–42, 147, 165

genetics, 3, 33–34, 80–81, 137–38, 158, 249–75

Genie (wild child), 169–70

genital development, 56–58, 138–40, 157–58

genome, human:

ape genome compared with, 27–29
chimpanzee genome compared with, 24–27, 28, 30–31, 209
code of, 24–26, 30–31, 36, 249
DNA sequences in, 2, 23–30, 31, 201
number of genes in, 1–3, 109, 132, 142–43, 234
uniqueness of, 1–3, 23, 27–29, 33–34

Genome Organizing Device (GOD), 41, 42, 47, 66, 133, 134, 137–38, 140, 141, 149, 163, 206

Gilbert, Walter, 141

Ginsburg, Benson, 50

glutamate, 109, 147, 194

gonadotropin-releasing hormone, 139

Goodall, Jane, 5, 13–14, 15

gorillas, 11, 18–20, 25, 201, 217, 240

goslings, 152, 153, 159, 163–64, 167–68, 280

Gottlieb, Gilbert, 154

Gould, Elizabeth, 145

Gould, Stephen Jay, 188, 243, 244, 279

Grant, Seth, 182

Greenspan, Ralph, 130

growth cones, 135, 137, 138–40, 280

Hamilton, William, 5, 236, 237, 242

Hamlet (Shakespeare), 110, 171, 271

haplodiploid genetics, 242

Harlow, Harry, 147, 190–92, 255, 279, 280

Harris, Judith Rich, 251–56

Hauser, Kaspar, 169, 170

hearing, 64, 168, 170, 198, 213–14, 217, 220

heart disease, 154–57, 216

Hebb, Donald, 196–97, 199

hebbian correlation, 196–97

Hebbosome, 182

Heisenberg, Werner, 4

Hensch, Takao, 166

hereditarians, 3, 243–44

Hereditary Genius (Galton), 70, 74

heredity:

general influence of, 3, 5, 6, 70–77, 122
intelligence and, 67–68, 70–71, 76–77, 87–96, 131, 241, 261–64
“particles” of, 231–33, 236, 237, 238, 275

Herrnstein, Richard, 88, 263

Hightower, Jim, 3

Hippius, Rudolf, 175

History of Human Marriage, The (Westermarck), 171

“History of Twins, as a Criterion of the Relative Powers of Nature and Nurture, The” (Galton), 72–74

Holt, Christine, 134–35, 279, 280

Homer, 1

Homo erectus, 219, 222–23

Homo ergaster, 222

homosexuality, 14, 22, 102, 103, 159–63, 243, 280

hormones, 27, 42–48, 127, 132, 139, 238–39

Horrobin, David, 118–21

Hoxc8 gene, 32–33, 34, 157

Hrdy, Sarah, 246–47, 256, 278

Huang, Josh, 165–67

Hubel, David, 165

human endogenous retroviruses (hervs), 114–15

Human Genome Project, 1–3, 109

human species:

animals vs., 10–11, 16–17, 188
common ancestor of, 10, 24, 36
consciousness in, 15–17, 243–44, 244, 273–74
diversity of, 2, 7–8, 52–56
divine origin of, 10, 11, 40–41
domestication of, 35–36, 175–76
females vs. males in, 7, 21, 38–39, 41, 52–62, 160, 233–34, 240–41, 266
races of, 203, 264–66
rationality of, 10–11, 14, 15
social improvement of, 185–86, 188–89, 199–200, 207–8, 229–30
survival of, 207–8, 236–48
uniqueness of, 7–10, 14, 23, 52–56, 211, 244

Hume, David, 5–6, 9–10, 64, 74, 179, 188, 197, 237, 269, 270

Humphrey, Nick, 226

Hunger Winter (1944–1945), 155–56

hunter-gatherers, 7–8, 21, 207, 224, 239, 259–60

Huntington’s chorea, 107, 117, 123

Huxley, Aldous, 149–50, 199

hypoxia, 113–14, 121

IGF2R gene, 89

IMHV (intermediate and medial hyperstratium ventrale), 163–64

immune system, 23–24, 27, 28–29, 100, 143, 157, 161–62

imprinting, 5, 152–53, 157–58, 159, 163–74, 192–95, 280

incest, 171–74

infants, 19–20, 59–60, 61, 126, 158–59, 191–95, 246

see also children

infertility, 138–40, 147

influenza, 111–13, 116, 121, 158, 202

Insel, Tom, 42–45, 148, 149, 279, 280

instinctivists, 11, 39–40

instincts, 4, 5, 11, 12–14, 16, 39–42, 49–55, 63–65, 126, 127–30, 189, 194, 240–42

intelligence:

brain size and, 89–90, 126
development of, 125–27
education and, 88, 93–94, 96, 146, 263
environmental factors in, 88, 89–96
general, 88–89, 90, 214
hereditary, 67–68, 70–71, 76–77, 87–96, 131, 241, 261–64
measurement of, 36, 65, 75, 88, 89, 90–92, 95–96, 126, 131
personality compared with, 90, 92
racial factors in, 88, 263
specialized, 21, 226–27, 258–59
unitary, 88–89, 90

intermediate and medial hyperstratium ventrale (IMHV), 163–64

introns, 141

isoleucine, 36

Jacob, François, 235–36, 238, 247

James, Henry, 38–39

James, William, 5, 6, 10, 38, 39–42, 48, 58, 62, 63, 67, 98, 183, 269–70, 272, 273, 277

James IV, King of Scotland, 169

Jankowiak, William, 46

Jenny (London Zoo orangutan), 8–12

Jensen, Arthur, 88

Johanssen, Wilhelm, 232

Joravsky, David, 188

KAL-1 gene, 138–40

Kallman, Franz, 104–5, 138

Kallman syndrome, 138–40, 145

Kamin, Leon, 75

Kano, Takayoshi, 18

Kant, Immanuel, 5–6, 122, 269, 270

Kantsaywhere (Galton), 96–97, 199

Kety, Seymour, 105–6

Khrushchev, Nikita, 187–88

King, Marie-Claire, 24, 25

King Lear (Shakespeare), 7

Kissinger, Henry, 168

Kissinger, Walter, 168

Knight, Thomas, 233

Kohn, Marek, 223–24

Kraepelin, Emil, 5, 6, 98–99, 101, 122, 124, 277

Kurzban, Robert, 265–66

Kyd, Thomas, 72

labor, division of, 21, 226–27, 258–59

lactation, 20, 42, 228

Lai, Cecilia, 214

language:

of animals, 15, 16–17, 215
brain area for, 216–22
genetic basis of, 214–16, 219, 250, 275
gestures and, 216–18
grammar in, 15, 168, 170, 214, 217, 219, 220
innate ability for, 40, 63–64
learning of, 167–70, 173, 214, 216, 217, 227, 228, 229, 250, 256
manual dexterity and, 212, 216–21
module for, 65–66
sign, 217, 220
vocabulary in, 40, 88–89, 170, 220

LAR gene, 141

larynx, 214–15, 216, 219

Lathrop, Abbie, 50

LCH (lissencephaly with cerebellar hypoplasia), 116–17

Leakey, Louis, 14

learning:

accumulative, 222–28
active, 180–81
by association, 177–200
behavior based on, 39, 40, 52, 146–47
compartmentalized, 254
cultural, 210–12
empathy and, 210–12
experience and, 66–67, 197–98
general, 63, 195–96
genetic basis of, 179–80, 198–99, 211, 214–22, 234
by imitation, 5, 192–95, 209–14, 219–20
innate, 39, 40, 63–64, 67–68, 245
instinct in, 39, 190–95
neuron activity in, 179–81, 195–99, 212–14
preadaptive, 208, 213
social, 171–72, 209–12
specialized, 21, 63, 195–96, 226–27, 258–59

Leclerc, Georges, 11

Lehrman, Daniel, 127–28, 131, 139, 144

Lenin, V. I., 74, 185

Lenneberg, Eric, 168, 169, 170

Levitt, Pat, 109–10

Lewis, Jim, 77–78

Lewontin, Richard, 204, 243, 244, 264, 279

Libet, Benjamin, 273

limbic system, 35, 273

lissencephaly with cerebellar hypoplasia (LCH), 116, 117

Little, Clarence, 50

Locke, John, 64, 74, 179, 199, 201, 270

Lodge, Thomas, 72

Lorenz, Gretl, 152, 173–74

Lorenz, Konrad, 5, 6, 126, 127–28, 152, 153–54, 155, 173–76, 200, 277, 279, 280

love:

genetic basis of, 237–38, 246–47, 280
hormonal activity in, 42–48, 132
as human instinct, 41–43, 48
parental, 41, 43, 46, 48, 237–38, 251–56

Love’s Labour’s Lost (Shakespeare), 72

Lutchmaya, Svetlana, 59

Lysenko, Trofim, 186–88

McBrearty, Sally, 225

McCabe, Brian, 164

Maccoby, Eleanor, 254

McDougall, William, 40

McKie, Robin, 1–2

Maffei, Lamberto, 166–67

Malik, Kenan, 15

malnutrition, 155–56, 158

Malthus, Thomas, 9

mammals:

anatomical development of, 29–30
brain of, 149
hormones of, 42
reproduction by, 42–48, 228
social relationships of, 211

manic depression, 100, 117

Manning, John, 157–58

MAOA (monoamine oxidase A) gene, 267–68

Mao Tse-tung, 74

marriage, 172–73, 230, 254

Marx, Karl, 14, 188

Marxism, 185–86, 188, 243, 244

masculinity, 238–41, 246, 248

Masters, Roger, 69

maternal care, 43, 46, 147–49, 191–92, 193, 255, 280

maternal immune reaction, 161–62

Maudsley, Henry, 122

Mayr, Ernst, 188

Mead, Margaret, 204, 207–8

Meaney, Michael, 148–49

Mednick, Sarnoff, 111–12

meme, 221–22, 223

memory:

behavioral, 213–14
genetic basis of, 87, 180, 181–82, 234, 250, 275, 279
imprinting and, 163–64
neuron activity in, 196–97
repression of, 101
retrieval vs., 181–82
social, 44, 46

Mendel, Gregor, 5, 129, 182, 186, 232–33, 247

Mengele, Josef, 75

mental illness:

biological basis of, 98–99, 100, 101
genetic factors in, 104–7
genius and, 122
psychogenic causes of, 82–85, 93, 101–2, 103, 158, 164
see also autism; manic depression; schizophrenia

meritocracy, 67–68, 77, 86, 93, 260–64

metabolism, 155–57, 196, 235, 236

methionine, 84–85, 93

methylation, 114

mice:

brain of, 32, 109, 133, 146, 147–49
breeding of, 49–50, 76, 148–49
embryos of, 28, 31, 238
female, 147–49
genetic makeup of, 45–46, 115–16, 215, 268
vision of, 135, 136, 165

Michurnin, Ivan, 186

Midgely, Mary, 189

Midsummer’s Night Dream, A (Shakespeare), 47, 72

Mill, John Stuart, 64, 74, 152, 179, 269

Miller, Geoffrey, 240, 241

Miller, George A., 251

Milton, John, 151

mind:

“blank slate” theory of, 179, 182–86, 189–90, 204, 205–6
consciousness of, 15–17, 243, 244, 273–74
cultural influences on, 201–8
isolation of, 208
rationality of, 10–11, 14, 15, 39, 63, 66, 88–89, 126, 220–21, 229
states of, 62–63
volition of, 269–75

Mind Doesn’t Work That Way, The (Fodor), 66

Mind of Primitive Man, The (Boas), 203

Mineka, Susan, 192–95, 211, 279, 280

Mito, Satsue, 210

Mobley, Stephen, 272

Moffitt, Terrie, 267–69, 279, 280

molecules:

axon-guide, 135–36
cell-adhesion, 138–44
variable-recognition, 143–44

Monboddo, James Burnett, Lord, 9

Money, John, 56–58

monkeys:

common ancestor of, 24
feeding habits of, 210, 212–13
female, 147, 191–92, 193
genetic makeup of, 27
humans compared with, 24, 39
instincts of, 39, 190–95
language skills of, 15, 216–17, 218
vision of, 165
see also apes; chimpanzees; gorillas

monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) gene, 267–68

Monod, Jacques, 235–36, 238, 247

monogamy, 20, 43–45, 48–49, 240

Moore, G. E., 188

Moore, Thomas, 96

Morris, Desmond, 14

Muchmore, Elaine, 27

Mulcaster, Richard, 71–72

Murray, Charles, 88, 263

Nakagawa, Shin-ichi, 134–35

Naked Ape, The (Morris), 14

Nansen, Fridtjof, 134

Nariokotome boy, 218–19, 222

Nash, John, 110, 122

nativists, 3, 39–40, 63, 67, 126, 127–30, 144, 145, 183, 196, 197–98, 245, 246

naturalistic fallacy, 162–63, 206

natural selection, 9, 39, 40, 63, 70, 94, 128, 236–40, 241

“Nature of Love, The” (Harlow), 191

nature vs. nurture debate:

anatomical development and, 29–30, 37
causality in, 98–101, 103, 114, 117–18, 123–24, 249, 252, 272–75
child development and, 126–27
complexity in, 142–43
conditioned learning and, 184–85
cooking analogy for, 125, 131–33
cultural differences and, 202, 208
as false dichotomy, 3–4, 74, 95–96, 277–80
Galton’s formulation of, 69–71, 93, 96, 178, 277
human genome and, 1–3
instinct as issue in, 39–40
intelligence and, 90–93, 95–96
mating behavior and, 54–55
media coverage of, 1–3, 78, 81–82, 243–44
mental illness and, 100–101, 110–11, 123–24
nature via nurture as resolution of, 2–3, 6, 34, 92–93, 246–48, 260, 262–64, 269–75, 277–80
paradoxical morals of, 249–75
in personality development, 85–87
prenatal development and, 157–58
protagonists in, 4–6, 277–80
in sociobiology, 242–48
temporal development and, 127, 130–31, 137
terminology of, 69–73
utopianism and, 67–68, 93, 96–97, 149–50, 174, 190, 199–200, 229–30

Nazism, 74, 75, 98, 103, 105, 155–56, 174–76, 186

N-cadherin gene, 140–41

NCS-1 gene, 146

nematode worm, 146–47

netrins, 135–36, 137

neurons:

connections of, 89–90, 108–10, 118, 119, 120, 133–38, 140–42, 196–97, 214, 274–75
generation of, 36–37, 144–49, 167
learning and, 179–81, 195–99, 212–14
migration of, 116–17
mirror, 212–13, 216
plasticity of, 133–38, 140–44, 146–47, 165–67, 198
schizophrenia and, 108–10, 118, 119, 120
synapses of, 108–9, 116–17, 143, 146, 147, 181, 194, 196–99, 275

neurotransmitters, 108–10, 164, 214

Newton, Isaac, 251

niches, ecological, 18, 21, 59

Nile River controversy, 69–70, 95

“nine-month revolution,” 210–11

1984 (Orwell), 190

NMDA receptor, 109

Nobel, Alfred, 177

Nonzero (Wright), 226

Nottebohm, Fernando, 145

Noyes, John Humphrey, 230

nurturists, 3, 96, 188, 189, 255–56

Nuttall, George, 23–24

OCEAN personality factors, 82–83

Odyssey (Homer), 1

Ofek, Haim, 227

olfactory receptor genes, 133–34, 138–40, 145

Onassis, Aristotle, 55

one gene, one disease (OGOD), 234

Oneida community, 230

operant conditioning, 183, 189–90

orangutans, 8–12, 18, 23, 215

organ transplants, 29

Origins of Virtue, The (Ridley), 227

Orwell, George, 190

oxen, 30

oxytocin, 42–48, 132, 148, 250

Paabo, Svante, 215

pair bonding, 21, 43–48, 132, 250

pangens, 231–33, 238, 248

paracingulate sulcus, 62–63

Paradise Regained (Milton), 151

Parkinson’s disease, 108, 120

Pauling, Linus, 235

Pavlov, Ivan, 5, 6, 178–80, 183, 185, 188, 192, 195, 196, 197, 199, 277

PCDH22 gene, 162

peacocks, 223–24, 240–41

peer groups, 256–60, 270

Peet, Malcolm, 120

penis, 138–40, 157–58

perceptron, 197

personality:

attributes of, 79–80, 82–83, 207
“big five” factors in, 82–83
development of, 5, 122, 125–27, 131, 132, 146–47, 237–38, 251–64
environmental factors in, 82, 85–87, 251–56, 260–64
genetic factors in, 77–87, 90, 92, 93, 106, 251–56, 260–64
peer groups and, 256–60, 270
“schizotypal,” 103, 118, 122

phenotypes, 140, 155–57, 250

phenylketonuria (PKU), 100

phospholipase-2 protein, 121

phospholipids, 120, 121

phylogenetic inertia, 17–18

Piaget, Jean, 5, 6, 125–27, 132, 139, 144, 146, 277

pigeons, 189–90

Pinker, Steven, 64, 66, 188, 189, 198, 206, 271, 279

pituitary gland, 42, 139

Planck, Max, 4, 231

plants, 18, 21, 60

Plato, 67–68, 96, 258

PLP gene, 89

polygamy, 18, 19, 20, 43, 48

polymerase, 234

polymorphism, 94

Pope, Alexander, 1

Popper, Karl, 68

Portrait of a Lady, The (H. James), 38–39

Positions Concerning the Training Up of Children (Mulcaster), 71–72

Posthuma, Danielle, 90

prefrontal cortex, 109, 110, 121

pregnancy, 113–14, 121

Principles of Psychology, The (W. James), 39–40

prostaglandins, 119

proteins:

alteration of, 215–16
axon-guidance, 135–36, 181, 214
creation of, 84–85, 235, 237
reelin, 115–16
types of, 142–44

protocadherins, 143–44

Psamtik I, King of Egypt, 169

psychoanalysis, 5, 40, 98–105, 108, 158

psychology, 5, 12, 41, 60, 128, 153, 177–200, 204, 208, 246–48, 251, 265–66

“Psychology as the Behaviorist Views It” (Watson), 183

Quinn, Chip, 180

rabbits, 23–24, 256

racism, 203, 244–45

Radcliffe-Richards, Janet, 95

Rajneesh, Bhagwan Shree, 230

Rakic, Pasco, 145

Rankin, Cathy, 146–47, 279, 280

rats, 43, 88, 144, 145, 183, 184

Rayner, Rosalie, 183–84

reasoning, abstract, 10–11, 14, 15, 39, 63, 66, 88–89, 126, 220–21, 229

reductionism, 163, 167, 179, 187, 247

reflexes, conditioned, 177–200

“refrigerator mother,” 102–3, 123

Reimer, David, 57–58, 59

repressor proteins, 235

Republic (Plato), 67–68

retardation, mental, 88, 89, 93, 169–70

retroviruses, 114–15

RGS4 gene, 109–10

ring finger, 157–58

risk-taking, 239–40

Rizzolatti, Giacomo, 212–14, 216

RNA, 141, 142, 235, 237, 248

Roberts, Richard, 141

robo genes, 136

Romanes, George, 11, 12

Rosanoff, Aaron, 104, 105

Rose, Steven, 131, 279

Rosenblatt, Frank, 197

Rousseau, Jean-Jacques, 9, 208, 237

Russell, Bertrand, 152

Saint-Simon, Henri de, 230

Salinger, J. D., 31

San Juan, Aureliano Maestre de, 138

Sarich, Vincent, 24

Scarr, Sandra, 59, 254

Schaffner, Ken, 128–29

Schaller, George, 18

schizophrenia, 98–124

brain development and, 108–18, 124
as “cliff disease,” 122–23
diagnosis of, 98–101
diet and, 118–21, 123–24
drug treatment for, 108–9, 120, 121
environmental factors in, 100–105, 110–15, 118–21, 123–24
ethnic factors and, 121–22
fetal development and, 110–17, 123
genetic factors in, 104–7, 110, 111, 113–14, 116–18, 121, 122, 123–24
neuron dysfunction and, 108–10, 118, 119, 120
occurrence of, 121–23
paranoid, 99–100, 102
psychosocial factors and, 101–5, 123
stress and, 109–10, 121
symptoms of, 99–100, 109–10, 118–19, 120, 124–25
viral infection and, 110–15, 116, 118

Schmucker, Dietmar, 142

Schrödinger, Erwin, 4

Schultz, Wolfram, 179, 197

Scott, Paul, 50

Sechenov, Ivan, 178, 179, 185, 188

Selfish Gene, The (Dawkins), 242–43, 244

Seligman, Martin, 192

semaphorins, 135

Semashko, N. A., 186

serine, 215

serotonin, 109, 255, 269

sexuality:

anatomical development and, 17–18, 138–40
of children, 158–59, 171–74
communal, 229–30
cultural differences in, 204, 208
genetic basis of, 58, 138–40, 160, 162, 238, 248–49, 261, 268
incestuous, 171–74
instinctive impulses in, 41–43
mating behavior in, 19–23, 42–48, 54–55, 94, 240–41
social behavior influenced by, 17–23
toolmaking and, 223–24
trans-, 56–58
see also homosexuality

Sexual Selections (Zuk), 22

Seyss-Inquart, Arthur, 156

Shakespeare, William, 6, 47, 71, 72, 110, 150, 171, 207, 271

Sharp, Philip, 141

sheep, 30, 46

Shelley, Mary, 173

Sherrington, Robin, 111

Shorter, Edward, 104

Shu, Huidy, 142

sialic acid, 27–29

Sibley, Charles, 25

Skinner, B. F., 12, 40, 126, 189–90, 191, 196, 197, 199–200, 204, 256

Skinner, Debby, 190

slits, 135–36

smell, 65, 133–34, 138–40, 145

Smith, Adam, 258–59

Smith, John Maynard, 278

snakes, 27, 192–95, 212

Snowdon, Chuck, 193

socialization theory, 251–56

sociobiology, 237–38, 241–48

Sociobiology (Wilson), 241–45

sociology, 12–13, 14, 40, 205, 244–45, 247, 252, 266

SOX9 gene, 238

Spalding, Douglas Alexander, 38, 152–53

Spearman, Charles, 89

species:

domestication of, 34–35, 49–52, 129, 175–76
rare, 29–30
similarities in, 7–10, 13, 17, 52–53
see also individual species

speech, 169, 198, 214–18, 250

Speke, John Hanning, 69–70

Sperry, Roger, 144, 145

spiders, 194, 195

spinal cord, 218–19

Spinoza, Baruch, 269, 270

Springer, Jim, 77–78

SRY gene, 160, 238, 239, 241, 248–49

Stalin, Joseph, 17, 186, 187

starvation, 155–56, 250

sterilization, 88, 122

stickleback fish, 48–49, 52, 192

sting rays, 228

Stokoe, William, 217, 220

substantia nigra, 179

Sulloway, Frank, 257

Sulston, John, 2

Suomi, Stephen, 255

superior temporal sulcus (STS), 213

Sur, Mriganka, 64

“survival of the fittest,” 239–40, 241

Svoboda, Karel, 146

Sylvian fissure, 219–20

symbols, 220–21, 229

synapses, neuronal, 108–9, 116–17, 143, 146, 147, 181, 194, 196–99, 275

systematizing, 61–62

taboos, 171–72, 173

tadpoles, 134–35, 280

Takahata, Yuki, 28

talent, innate, 67–68, 70–71, 76–77, 96, 241, 261–64

Tattersall, Ian, 227

Tempest, The (Shakespeare), 71

temporal lobe, 216–17, 220

Terman, Lewis, 190

Terrace, Herbert, 16–17

testicles, 19, 20–21, 22, 48, 138–40

testis-determining factor, 238

testosterone, 59, 61, 139, 157–58, 239

Thorndike, Edward, 12, 183, 196, 199

Tiger, Lionel, 212

Tinbergen, Niko, 48–49, 127, 153, 155, 192

Tomasello, Michael, 210–12

Tommy (London Zoo chimpanzee), 8, 11–12

Tonegawa, Susumu, 165

Tooby, John, 40, 63, 245–48, 265

tools, 14, 219–20, 222–25

totalitarianism, 68, 96–97, 199

toxoplasmosis, 113

Treatise of Human Nature, A (Hume), 9–10

Trotsky, Leon, 185–86

Tschermark, Erich von, 232

Tully, Tim, 87, 181

Turgenev, Ivan, 177

Turing, Alan, 63

Turkheimer, Eric, 87

turtles, 58

Twelfth Night (Shakespeare), 72

twins, 72–90

adopted, 77–78, 83, 85–88, 105–6, 107, 110
dizygotic, 76, 79
fraternal, 73–74, 79, 80, 81–82, 90, 93, 103, 104–5, 254, 257
identical, 72–82, 89–90, 93, 96, 103, 104–5, 106, 110–14, 254, 257
intelligence of, 87–90, 93, 96
monoamniotic, 112
monochorionic, 112–13
monozygotic, 76
personalities of, 77–87, 252, 257
reunited, 77–78, 80
schizophrenic, 104–6, 107, 110–14

Upper Paleolithic period, 224–25, 227, 228

utopias, 67–68, 93, 96–97, 149–50, 174, 190, 199–200, 229–30

valine, 84–85, 93

Varki, Ajit, 27–29

vasopressin, 42–46

Venter, Craig, 1–2

ventral pallidum, 44

ventral tegmental area, 179

vernalization, 187

vertebrae, 218–19

Victor (wild child), 169, 170

Victoria, Queen of England, 9

violence, 15, 87, 238–41, 245, 246, 253, 254, 267–69, 271–72

Virchow, Rudolf von, 203

viruses, 44, 100, 110–15

vision:

binocular, 134–36, 164, 250
brain area for, 45–46, 63, 64–67, 145–46, 164–67
compound, 140–43
deprivation of, 141–42, 164–67
genetic basis of, 164–67, 250, 280

visual cortex, 145–46, 164–67

voles, 43–45, 48, 250, 280

vomeronasal organ, 139

Vygotsky, Lev, 208

Waal, Frans de, 210, 211

Waddington, Conrad, 130

Waitz, Theodor, 203

Walden Two (Skinner), 199–200

Wallace, Alfred Russel, 10

Walter, Henrik, 270, 274

wasps, 49, 52, 66, 242

Watson, James, 233–34

Watson, John B., 5, 6, 40, 179, 180–85, 188, 189, 196, 199, 204, 206, 235, 238, 247, 256, 277

wealth, 54–55, 90–91, 241, 262–64

weight, body, 83–84, 91, 92, 106

Weinberger, Daniel, 117

West, Rebecca, 38

West-Eberhard, Mary Jane, 129

Westermarck, Edward, 171–72, 174

whales, 15, 210

Whiten, Andrew, 226

Wiesel, Torsten, 165

Williams, George, 236, 237, 242

Wilson, Allan, 24, 25

Wilson, Edward O., 236, 241–45, 246, 279

Wilson, Frank, 220

Wilson, Margo, 246

Wolf, Arthur, 172

Wolfe, Tom, 249

wolves, 34–35, 51, 129, 175

womb, 42, 112–14, 121, 148–49, 157–63

Woods, Geoffrey, 36

worms, 2–3, 146–47, 234, 280

Wrangham, Richard, 21, 35

Wright, Robin, 226, 227

xeno-transplantation, 29–30

Yerkes, Robert, 183

Yolken, Robert, 114–15

Zahavi, Amotz, 240

Zimmerman, Robert, 191

Zipursky, Larry, 140–43, 279, 280

Zuk, Marlene, 22

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