Book: The Agile Gene

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Book main: Foreword

PROLOGUE

Book 1, Line 58.

Observer, 11 Feb. 2001.

San Francisco Chronicle, 11 Feb. 2001.

New York Times, 12 Feb. 2001.

See http://web.fccj.org/~ethall/trivia/solvay.htm

CHAPTER 1 : THE PARAGON OF ANIMALS

Act 3, scene 4.

Keynes, R.D. (ed.). 1988. Charles Darwin’s Beagle Diary. Cambridge University Press.

Ibid.

Keynes, R.D. 2001. Annie’s Box. 4th Estate.

Quoted in Degler, C.N. 1991. In Search of Human Nature. Oxford University Press.

Quoted in Midgely, M. 1978. Beast and Man. Routledge.

Budiansky, S. 1998. If a Lion Could Talk. Weidenfeld and Nicolson.

Buffon’s Natural History (abridged). 1792. London.

Bewick, T. 1807. A General History of Quadrupeds. Newcastle upon Tyne.

Morris, R. and Morris, D. 1966. Men and Apes. Hutchinson.

Goodall, J. 1990. Through a Window. Houghton Mifflin.

Ibid.

Rendell, L. and Whitehead, H. 2001. Culture in whales and dolphins. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24:309–24.

Call, J. 2001. Chimpanzee social cognition. Trends in Cognitive Science 5:388–93.

Malik, K. 2001. What Is It to Be Human? Institute of Ideas.

Darwin, C. 1871. The Descent of Man. John Murray.

Malik, K. 2001. What Is It to Be Human? Institute of Ideas.

Midgley, M. 1978. Beast and Man. Routledge.

Zuk, M. 2002. Sexual Selections. University of California Press.

van Schaik, C.P. and Kappeler, P.M. 1997. Infanticide risk and the evolution of male–female association in primates. Proceedings of the Royal Society B:264:1687–94.

Wrangham, R.W., Jones, J.H., Laden, G., Pilbeam, D., and Conkin-Brittain, N. 1999. The raw and the stolen. Cooking and the ecology of human origins. Current Anthropology 40:567–94.

Ridley, M. 1996. The Origins of Virtue. Penguin.

Wrangham, R.W. and Peterson, D. 1997. Demonic Males. Bloomsbury.

Alan Dixson, e-mail correspondence.

http://www.blockbonobofoundation.org.

Ebersberger, I., Metzier, D., Schwarz, C., and Paabo, S. 2002. Genome-wide comparison of DNA sequences between human and chimpanzees. American Journal of Human Genetics 70:1490–97.

Britten, R.J. 2002. Divergence between samples of chimpanzee and human DNA sequences is 5%, counting indels. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 99:13633–5.

King, M.C. and Wilson, A.C. 1975. Evolution at two levels in humans and chimpanzees. Science 188:107–16.

Sibley, C.G. and Ahiquist, J.E. 1984. The phylogeny of the hominoid primates, as indicated by DNA-DNA hybridization. Journal of Molecular Evolution 20:2–15.

Johnson, M.E., Viggiano, L., Bailey, J.A., Abdul-Rauf, M., Goodwin, G., Rocchi, M., and Eichler, E.E. 2001. Positive selection of a gene during the emergence of humans and African apes. Nature 413:514–19.

Hayakawa, T., Satta, Y., Gagneux, P., Varki, A., and Takahata, N. 2001. Alu-mediated inactivation of the human CMP-N-acetyineuraminic acid hydroxylase gene. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 98:11399–404.

Ajit Varki, interview. See also Chou, H.-H. et al. 1998. A mutation in human CMP-sialic acid hydroxylase occurred after the Homo-Pan divergence. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 95:11751–6; Gagneux, P. and Varki, A. 2001. Genetic differences between humans and great apes. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 18:2–13; Varki, A. 2001. Loss of N-glycolylneuraminic acid in humans: Mechanisms, consequences, and implications for hominid evolution. Yearbook of Physical Anthropology 44:54–69

Hammer, C.J., Tyler, H.D., Loskutoff, N.M., Armstrong, D.L., Funk, D.J., Lindsey, B.R., and Simmons, L.G. 2001. Compromised development of calves (Bos gaurus) derived from in vitro-generated embryos and transferred interspecifically into domestic cattle (Bos taurus). Theriogenology 55:1447–55; Loskutoff, N., e-mail correspondence.

There is some confusion over terminology here. Some biologists use “promoter” to mean the site where the RNA polymerase enzyme binds after being recruited by a transcription factor. Here I use it in the broader sense, to mean the entire regulatory sequence of the gene.

Belting, H.G., Shashikant, C.S., and Ruddle, F.H. 1998. Modification of expression and cis-regulation of Hoxc8 in the evolution of diverged axial morphology. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 95:2355–60.

Cohn, M.J. and Tickle, C. 1999. Developmental basis of limblessness and axial patterning in snakes. Nature 399:474–9.

Ptashne, M. and Gann, A. 2002. Genes and Signals. Cold Spring Harbor Press; also Alex Gann, interviews.

Carroll, S.B. 2000. Endless forms: The evolution of gene regulation and morphological diversity. Cell 101:577–80.

Coppinger, R. and Coppinger, L. 2001. Dogs: A Startling New Understanding of Canine Origin, Behavior, and Evolution. Scribner.

Semendeferi, K., Armstrong, E, Schleicher, A., Zilles, K., and van Hoesen, G. W. 1998. Limbic frontal cortex in hominoids: A comparative study of area 13. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 106:129–55.

Wrangham, R.W., Pilbeam, D., and Hare, B. (Unpublished.) Convergent paedomorphism in bonobos, domesticated animals, and humans: The role of selection for reduced aggression.

Wrangham, R.W. and Pilbeam, D. 2001, in All Apes Great and Small, volume 1, Chimpanzees, Bonobos, and Gorillas (ed. Galdikas, B., Erickson, N., and Sheeran, L.K.). Plenum; also Wrangham, R.W. Talk at Cold Spring Harbor, President’s Council, May 2001.

Quoted in the New York Times, 24 September 2002.

Bond, J., Roberts, E., Mochida, G.H., Hampshire, D.J., Scott, S., Askham, J.M., Springell, K., Mahadevan, M., Crow, Y.J., Markham, A.F., Walsh, C.A., and Woods, C.G. 2002. ASPM is a major determinant of cerebral cortical size. Nature Genetics 32:316–20.

CHAPTER 2: A PLETHORA OF INSTINCTS

Spalding, D.A. 1873 Instinct: With original observations on young animals. Macmillan’s Magazine 27:282–93.

Myers, G.E. 1986. William James: His Life and Thought. Yale University Press.

Bender, B. 1996. The Descent of Love: Darwin and the Theory of Sexual Selection in American Fiction, 1871–1926. University of Pennsylvania Press.

James, W. 1890. The Principles of Psychology. Henry Holt.

Myers, G.E. 1986. William James: His Life and Thought. Yale University Press.

Dawkins, R. 1986. The Blind Watchmaker. Norton.

Dennett, D. 1995. Darwin’s Dangerous Idea. Penguin.

James, W. 1890. The Principles of Psychology. Henry Holt.

Insel, T.R. and Shapiro, L.E. 1992. Oxytocin receptor distribution reflects social organization in monogamous and polygamous voles. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 89:5981–5.

Argiolas, A., Melis, M.R., Stancampiano, R., and Gessa, G.L. 1989. Penile erection and yawning induced by oxytocin and related peptides: Structure-activity relationship. Peptides 10:559–63.

Insel, T.R. and Shapiro, L.E. 1992. Oxytocin receptor distribution reflects social organization in monogamous and polygamous voles. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 89:5981–5.

Ferguson, J.N., Young, L.J., Hearn, E.F., Matzuk, M.M., Insel, T.R., and Winslow, J.T. 2000. Social amnesia in mice lacking the oxytocin gene. Nature Genetics 25:284–8.

Young, L.J., Wang, Z., and Insel, T.R. 1998. Neuroendocrine bases of monogamy. Trends in Neurosciences 21:71–5.

Insel, T.R., Winslow, J.T., Wang, Z., and Young, L.J. 1998. Oxytocin, vasopressin, and the neuroendocrine basis of pair bond formation. Advances in Experimental and Medical Biology 449:215–24.

Insel, T.R. and Young, L.J. 2001. The neurobiology of attachment. Nature Reviews in Neuroscience 2:129–36.

Wang, Z., Yu, G., Cascio, C., Liu, Y., Gingrich, B., and Insel, T.R. 1999. Dopamine D2 receptor-mediated regulation of partner preference in female prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster): A mechanism for pair bonding? Behavioral Neuroscience 113:602–11.

Jankowiak, W.R. and Fisher, E.F. 1992. A cross-cultural perspective on romantic love. Ethnology 31:149–55.

Insel. T.R., Gingrich, B.S., and Young, L.J. 2001. Oxytocin: Who needs it? Progress in Brain Research 133:59–66.

Bartels, A. and Zeki, S. 2000. The neural basis of romantic love. Neuroreport 11:3829–34.

Carter, C.S. 1998. Neuroendocrine perspectives on social attachment and love. Psychoneuroendocrinology 23:779–818.

Ridley, M. 1993. The Red Queen. Penguin.

Tinbergen, N. 1951. The Study of Instinct. Oxford University Press.

Ginsburg, B.E. 2001. Fellow travellers on the road to the genetics of behavior: Mice, rats, and dogs. Talk to the International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society, 8–10 November 2001, San Diego.

Konner, M. 2001. The Tangled Wing: Biological Constraints on the Human Spirit. 2nd edition. W.H. Freeman.

Budiansky, S. 2000. The Truth about Dogs. Viking Penguin.

You can find such a bull catalog at www.genuspc.com.

Eib-Eibesfeldt, I. 1989. Human Ethology. Aldine de Gruyter; Ekman, P. 1998. Afterword: Universality of emotional expression? A personal history of the dispute. In Darwin, C., The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals (new edition). Oxford University Press.

Buss, D.M. 1994. The Evolution of Desire. Basic Books.

Buss, D.M. 2000. The Dangerous Passion. Bloomsbury.

You can find this quoted almost anywhere on the Internet.

Diamond, M., 1965. A critical evaluation of the ontogeny of human sexual behavior. Quarterly Review of Biology 40:147–75.

Colapinto, J. 2000. As Nature Made Him: The Boy Who Was Raised as a Girl. HarperCollins.

Reiner, W.G. 1999. Assignment of sex in neonates with ambiguous genitalia. Current Opinion in Pediatrics 11:363–5. Also article in the Times (London), 26 June 2001, by Lisa Melton: Ethics and gender.

Lutchmaya, S., Baron-Cohen, S., and Raggatt, P. In press. Foetal testosterone and eye contact in 12 month old human infants. Infant Behavior Development.

Connellan, H., Baron-Cohen, S., Wheelwright, S., Batki, A., and Ahluwalia, J. 2000. Sex differences in human neonatal social perception. Infant Behavior and Development 23:113–18.

Baron-Cohen, S. 2002. The extreme male brain theory of autism. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 6:248–54.

Baron-Cohen, S. 2002. Autism: Deficits in folk psychology exist alongside superiority in folk physics. In Understanding Other Minds (ed. Baron-Cohen, S., Tager-Flusberg, H., and Cohen, D.J.), pp. 73–82; Baron-Cohen, S., Wheelwright, S., Skinner, R., Martin, J., and Clubley, E. 2001. The autism spectrum quotient: Evidence from Asperger syndrome high-functioning autism, males and females, scientists and mathematicians. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 31:5–17.

Baron-Cohen, S., interview.

Frith, C. and Frith, U. 2000. The physiological basis of theory of mind: Functional neuroimaging studies. In Understanding Other Minds (ed. Baron-Cohen, S., Tager-Flusberg, H., and Cohen, D.J.), pp. 334–56.

Tooby, J. and Cosmides, L. 1992. The psychological foundations of culture. In The Adapted Mind (ed. Barkow, J.H., Cosmides, L., and Tooby, J.). Oxford University Press.

Pinker, S. 1994. The Language Instinct. HarperCollins.

Sharma, J., Angelucci, A., and Sur, M. 2000. Induction of visual orientation modules in auditory cortex. Nature 404:841–7.

Finlay, B.L., Darlington, R.B., and Nicastro, N. 2001. Developmental structure in brain evolution. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24:263–308.

Barton, R.A. and Harvey, P.H. 2000. Mosaic evolution of brain structure in mammals. Nature 405:1055–8.

Fodor, J. 2001. The Mind Doesn’t Work That Way. MIT Press.

Pinker, S. 1997. How the Mind Works. Norton.

Lee, D. 1987. Introduction to Plato. The Republic. Penguin.

Neville-Sington, P. and Sington, D. 1993. Paradise Dreamed: How Utopian Thinkers Have Changed the World. Bloomsbury.

CHAPTER 3: A CONVENIENT JINGLE

Conversation with the author, Montreal, 2002.

Galton, F. 1869. Hereditary Genius.

Candolle, A. de. 1872. Histoire des sciences et des savants depuis deux siècles.

Galton, F. 1874. English Men of Science: Their Nature and Nurture.

The Tempest, Act 4, scene 1.

The text of Mulcaster’s “Positions” can be found at http://www.ucs.mun.ca/~wbarker/positions-txt.html

A Midsummer Night’s Dream, Act 3, scene 2.

Galton, F. 1875. The history of twins, as a criterion of the relative powers of nature and nurture. Fraser’s Magazine 12:566–76.

Gilham, N. 2001. A Life of Sir Francis Galton: From African Exploration to the Birth of Eugenics. Oxford University Press.

Ridley, M. 1999. Genome. 4th Estate.

Lifton, R.J. 1986. The Nazi Doctors. Basic Books.

Wright, W. 1999. Born That Way. Routledge.

For an excellent summary of the ins and outs of twins, see Segal, N. 1999. Entwined Lives. Dutton. Incidentally, it is increasingly unfashionable to use the terms “identical” and “fraternal”; researchers prefer the more precise “monozygotic” and “dizygotic.” But this is a popular book, so I stick to the popular terms.

For a general review of behavior genetics, see: Plomin, R., DeFries, J.C., Craig, I.W., and McGuffin, P. 2002. Behavioral Genetics in the Postgenomic Era. American Psychological Association.

Wright, W. 1999. Born That Way. Routledge.

Farber, S.L. 1981. Identical Twins Reared Apart: A Reanalysis. Basic Books.

There is evidence that fraternal twins are actually more similar genetically than siblings, because although they come from different sperm, they often come from the same maternal oocyte, two of whose pronuclei develop into eggs. This, however, only makes it more remarkable that they prove so different from each other in personality compared with identical twins.

Bouchard, T.J., McGue, M., Lykken, D., and Tellegen, A. 1999. Intrinsic and extrinsic religiousness: Genetics and environmental influences and personality correlates. Twin Research 2:88–98; Kirk, K.M., Eaves, L.J., and Martin, N. 1999. Self-transcendence as a measure of spirituality in a sample of older Australian twins. Twin Research 2:81–7. McCort, K., Bouchard, T. J., Lykken, D. T., Tellegen, A., and Keyes, M. 1999. Authoritarianism Revisited: Genetic and Environmental Influences Examined in Twins Reared Apart and Together. Personality and Individual Differences, 27:985–1014.

Nelkin, D. and Lindee, M.S. 1996. The DNA Mystique. W.H. Freeman.

Pioneer Fund Website.

Quoted in Wright, W. 1999. Born That Way. Routledge.

Pinker, S. 2002. The Blank Slate. Penguin.

Eley, T.C., Lichtenstein, P., and Stevenson, J. 1999. Sex differences in the etiology of aggressive and nonaggressive antisocial behavior: Results from two twin studies. Child Development 70:155–68.

Mischel, W. 1981. Introduction to Personality. Holt, Rinehart and Winston.

Thomas Bouchard, interview.

Clark, W.R. and Grunstein, M. 2000. Are We Hard-Wired? The Role of Genes in Human Behavior. Oxford University Press.

Bouchard, T.J. Jr. 1999. Genes, environment and personality, pp. 98–103 in The Nature–Nurture Debate (ed. Ceci, S.J. and Williams, W.M.). Blackwell.

Krueger, R. 2001. Talk to the 10th International Congress of Twin Studies, London, 4–7 July 2001.

Grilo, C.M. and Pogue-Geile, M.F. 1991. The nature of environmental influences on weight and obesity. Psychological Bulletin 110:520–37.

Randolph Nesse, e-mail. See also Srijan, S., Nesse, R.M., Stoltenberg, S.F., Li, S., Gleiberman, L., Chakravarti, A., Weder, A.B., and Burmeister, M. 2002. A BDNF coding variant is associated with the NEO personality inventory domain neuroticism, a risk factor for depression. Neuropsychopharmacology (in press). Originally published Aug. 27, 2002 at http://www.acnp.org/citations.Npp082902374

Bouchard, T.J. Jr, Lykken, D.T., McGue, M., Segal, N.L., and Tellegen, A. 1990. Sources of human psychological differences: The Minnesota Study of Twins Reared Apart. Science 250:223–8.

Eaves, L., D’Onofrio, B., and Russell, R. 1999. Transmission of religion and attitudes. Twin Research 2:59–61.

Tully, T., interview.

Turkheimer, E. 1998. Heritability and biological explanation. Psychology Review 105:782–91.

Zach Mainen, interview.

Jensen, A. 1969. How much can we boost IQ and scholastic achievement? Harvard Educational Review 39:1–123.

Herrnstein, R.J. and Murray, C. 1994. The Bell Curve: Intelligence and Class Structure in American Life. Free Press.

Posthuma, D., Neale, M.C., Boomsma, D.I., and de Geus, E.J. 2001. Are smarter brains running faster? Heritability of alpha peak frequency, IQ, and their interrelation. Behavior Genetics 31:567–79.

Thompson, P.M., Cannon, T.D., Narr, K.L., van Erp, T., Poutanen, V.-P., Huttunen, M., Lohnqvist, J., Standertskjold-Nordenstam, C.-G., Kaprio, J., Khaledy, M., Dail, R., Zoumalan, C.I., and Toga, A.W. 2001. Genetic influences on brain structure. Nature Neuroscience 4:1253–8; Posthuma, D., De Geus, E.J., Baare, W.F., Hulshoff Pol, H.E., Kahn, R.S., and Boomsma, D.I. 2002. The association between brain volume and intelligence is of genetic origin. Nature Neuroscience 5:83–4.

Turkheimer, E., Haley, A., D’Onofrio, B., Waldron, M., Emery, R.E., and Gottesman, I. 2001. Socioeconomic status modifies heritability of intelligence in impoverished children. Paper at the annual meeting of the Behavior Genetics Association, Cambridge, July 2001.

McGue, M., Bouchard, T.J. Jr, Iacono, W.G., and Lykken, D.T. 1993. Behavior genetics of cognitive ability: A life-span perspective. In Nature Nurture and Psychology (ed. Plomin, R. and McClearn, G.E.), American Psychological Association; also McClearn, G.E. et al. 1997. Substantial genetic influence on cognitive abilities in twins 80+ years old. Science 276:1560–3.

Eley, T., interview.

Dickens, W.T. and Flynn, J.R. 2001. Heritability estimates versus large environmental effects: The IQ paradox resolved. Psychological Review 108:346–69.

Williams, A.G., Rayson, M.P., Jubb, M., World, M., Woods, D.R., Hayward, M., Martin J., Humphries, S.E., and Montgomery, H.E. 2000. The ACE gene and muscle performance. Nature 403:614.

Ridley, M. 1993. The Red Queen. Penguin.

Radcliffe-Richards, J. 2000. Human Nature after Darwin. Routledge.

Flynn, J.R. (unpublished). The history of the American mind in the 20th century: A scenario to explain IQ gains over time and a case for the irrelevance of g.

For those curious about Galton’s unpublished novel, a fuller précis is given in Nicholas Gilham’s biography of Galton, cited above.

CHAPTER 4: THE MADNESS OF CAUSES

James, W. 1890. Principles of Psychology.

Quoted in Shorter, E. 1997. A History of Psychiatry. John Wiley and Sons.

Fromm-Reichmann, F. 1948. Notes on the development of treatment of schizophrenics by psychoanalytic psychotherapy. Psychiatry 11:263:73.

Pollak, R. 1997. The Creation of Dr B: a Biography of Bruno Bettelheim. Simon and Schuster.

Folstein, S.E. and Mankoski, R.E. 2000. Chromosome 7q: Where autism meets language disorder? American Journal of Human Genetics 67:278–81.

James, O. 2002. They F*** You Up: How to Survive Family Life. Bloomsbury.

The psychiatrist and writer Randolph Nesse calls this the central error of psychiatric research.

Cited in Torrey, E.F. 1988. Surviving Schizophrenia: A Family Manual. Harper and Row.

Shorter, E. 1997. A History of Psychiatry. John Wiley and Sons.

Wahlberg, K.E., Wynne, L.C., Oja, H. et al. 1997. Gene-environment interaction in vulnerability to schizophrenia: Findings from the Finnish adoptive family study in schizophrenia. American Journal of Psychiatry 154:355–62.

Kety, S.S. and Ingraham, L.J. 1992. Genetic transmission and improved diagnosis of schizophrenia from pedigrees of adoptees. Journal of Psychiatric Research 26:247–55.

Tsuang, M., Stone, W.S., and Faraone, S.V. 2001. Genes, environment, and schizophrenia. British Journal of Psychiatry 178 (supplement 40):s18–s24.

Sherrington, R., Brynjolfsson, J., Petursson, H. et al. 1988. Localization of a susceptibility locus for schizophrenia of chromosome 5. Nature 336:164–7; Bassett, A.S., McGillvray, B.C., Jones, B.D. et al. 1988. Partial trisomy of chromosome 5 cosegregating with schizophrenia. Lancet 1988:799–801.

Levinson, D.F. and Mowry, B.J. 1999. Genetics of schizophrenia. In Genetic Influences on Neural and Behavioral Functions (ed. Pfaff, D.W., Joh, T., and Maxson, S.C.), pp. 47–82. CRC Press, Boca Raton

Mirnics, K., Middleton, F.A., Lewis, D.A., and Levitt, P. 2001. Analysis of complex brain disorders with gene expression microarrays: Schizophrenia as a disease of the synapse. Trends in Neurosciences 24:479–86.

Tsuang, M., Stone, W.S., and Faraone, S.V. 2001. Genes, environment, and schizophrenia. British Journal of Psychiatry 178 (supplement 40): S18–S24.

Mednick. S.A., Machon, R.A., Huttunen, M.O., Bonett, D. 1988. Adult schizophrenia following prenatal exposure to an influenza epidemic. Archives of General Psychiatry 45:189–92; Munk-Jorgensen, P. and Ewald, H. 2001. Epidemiology in neurobiological research: Exemplified by the influenzaschizophrenia theory. British Journal of Psychiatry 178 (supplement 40):s30–S32.

Davis, J.O., Phelps, J.A., and Bracha, H.S. 1999. Prenatal development of monozygotic twins and concordance for schizophrenia. In The Nature–Nuture Debate (ed. Ceci, S.J. and Williams, W.W.). Blackwell.

Tsuang, M., Stone, W.S., and Faraone, S.V. 2001. Genes, environment, and schizophrenia. British Journal of Psychiatry 178 (supplement 40): S18–S24.

Deb-Rinker, P., Klempan, T.A., O’Reilly, R.L., Torrey, E.F., and Singh, S.M. 1999. Molecular characterization of a MSRV-like sequence identified by RDA from monozygotic twin pairs discordant for schizophrenia. Genomics 61:133–44.

Karlsson, H., Bachmann, S., Schroder, J., McArthur, J., Torrey, E.F., and Yolken, R.H. 2001. Retroviral RNA identified in the cebrebrospinal fluids and brains of individuals with schizophrenia. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 98:4634–9.

Impagatiello, F., Guidotti, A.R., Pesold, C. et al. 1998. A decrease of reelin expression as a putative vulnerability factor in schizophrenia. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 95:15718–23.

Fatemi, S.H., Emamian, E.S., Kist, D., Sidwell, R.W., Nakajima, K., Akhter, P., Shier, A., Sheikh, S., and Bailey, K. 1999. Defective corticogenesis and reduction in reelin immunoreactivity in cortex and hippocampus of prenatally infected neonatal mice. Molecular Psychiatry 4:145–54.

Fatemi, S.H. 2001. Reelin mutations in mouse and man: From reeler mouse to schizophrenia, mood disorders, autism, and lissencephaly. Molecular Psychiatry 6:129–33.

Hong, S.E., Shugart, Y.Y., Huang, D.T., Shahwan, S.A., Grant, P.E., Hourihane, J.O., Martin, N.D., and Walsh, C.A. 2000. Autosomal recessive lissencephaly with cerebellar hypoplasia is associated with human RELN mutations. Nature Genetics 26:93–6.

Cannon, M., Caspi, A., Moffitt, T.E., Harrington, H., Taylor, A., Murray, R.M., and Poulton, R. 2002. Evidence for early-childhood, pan-developmental impairment specific to schizophreniform disorder: Results from a longitudinal birth cohort. Archives of General Psychiatry 59:449–56.

Weinberger, D.R. 1987. Implications of normal brain development for the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry 44:660–9; Weinberger, D.R. 1995. From neuropathology to neurodevelopment. Lancet 26:552–7.

Mirnics, K., Middleton, F.A., Lewis, D.A., and Levitt, P. 2001. Analysis of complex brain disorders with gene expression microarrays: Schizophrenia as a disease of the synapse. Trends in Neurosciences 24:479–86.

Horrobin, D. 2001. The Madness of Adam and Eve. Bantam.

Peet, M., Glen, I., and Horrobin, D. 1999. Phospholipid Spectrum Disorder in Psychiatry. Marius Press.

Jablensky, A., Sartorius, N. Ernberg, G., Anker, M., Korten, A., Cooper, J.E., Day, R., and Bertelson, A. 1992. Schizophrenia: Manifestations, incidence, and course in different cultures. A World Health Organisation Ten Country Study, Psychological Medicine Supplement 20:1–97.

Quoted in Horrobin, D. 2001. The Madness of Adam and Eve. Bantam.

Stevens, A. and Price, J. 2000. Prophets, Cults, and Madness. Duckworth, London.

Simonton, D.K. 2002. The Origins of Genius. Oxford University Press.

Nasar, S. 1998. A Beautiful Mind: A Biography of John Forbes Nash Jr. Faber and Faber, London.

CHAPTER 5: GENES IN THE FOURTH DIMENSION

Dawkins, 1981. See http://www.world-of-dawkins.com/Dawkins/Work/Reviews/1985-01-24notinourgenes.htm.

Singer, D.G. and Revenson, T.A. 1996. A Piaget Primer: How a Child Thinks. 2nd edition. Plume.

Lehrman, D.S. 1953. A critique of Konrad Lorenz’s theory of instinctive behavior. Quarterly Review of Biology 28:337–63.

Tinbergen, N. 1963. On the aims and methods of ethology. Zeitschrift für Tierpsychologie 20:410–33.

Schaffner, K.F. 1998. Genes, behavior, and developmental emergentism: One process, indivisible? Philosophy of Science 65:209–52.

West-Eberhard, M.J. 1998. Evolution in the light of cell biology, and vice versa. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 95:8417–19.

For example, Oyama, S. 2000. Evolution’s Eye. Duke University Press.

Greenspan, R.J. 1995. Understanding the genetic construction of behavior. Scientific American, April: 72–8.

Waddington, C.H. 1940. Organisers and Genes. Cambridge University Press.

Ariew, A. 1999. Innateness is canalization: In defense of a developmental account of innateness. In Biology Meets Psychology: Conjectures, Connections, Constraints (ed. Hardcastle, V.). MIT Press.

Bateson, P. and Martin, P. 1999. Design for a Life: How Behaviour Develops. Jonathan Cape.

See the review of “Not in Our Genes” by Richard Dawkins, in New Scientist, 24 January 1985. Available online at http://www.world-of-dawkins.com/Dawkins/Work/Reviews/1985-01-24notinourgenes.htm.

Zhang, X. and Firestein, S. 2002. The olfactory receptor gene superfamily of the mouse. Nature Neuroscience 5:124–33.

Gogos, J.A., Osborne, J., Nemes, A., Mendelson, M., and Axel, R. 2000. Genetic ablation and restoration of the olfactory topographic map. Cell 103:609–20.

Wang, F., Nemes, A., Mendelsohn, M., and Axel, R. 1998. Odorant receptors govern the formation of a precise topographic map. Cell 93:47–60.

Holt, C. Lecture to Society for Neurosciences meeting, San Diego, November 2001; Campbell, D.S. and Holt, C.E. 2001. Chemotropic responses of retinal growth cones mediated by rapid local protein synthesis and degradation. Neuron 32:1013–26.

Tessier-Lavigne, M. and Goodman, C.S. 1996. The molecular biology of axon guidance. Science 274:1123–33; Yu, T.W. and Bargmann, C.I. 2001. Dynamic regulation of axon guidance. Nature Neuroscience 4 (Supplement): 1169–76.

Richards, L.J. 2002. Surrounded by Slit—How forebrain commissural axons can be led astray. Neuron 33:153–5.

Marillat, V., Cases, O., Nguyen-Ba-Charvel, K.T., Tessier-Lavigne, M., Sotelo, C., and Chedotal, A. 2002. Spatiotemporal expression patterns of slit and robo genes in the rat brain. Journal of Comparative Neurology 442:130–55; Dickson, B.J., Cline, H., Polleux, F., and Ghosh, A. 2001. Making connections: Axon guidance and neural plasticity. Embo Reports 2:182–6.

Soussi-Yanicostas, N., Faivre-Sarrailh, C., Hardelin, J.-P., Levilliers, J., Rougon, G., Petit, C. 1998. Anosmin-1 underlying the X chromosome-linked Kallman syndrome is an adhesion molecule that can modulate neurite growth in a cell-type specific manner. Journal of Cell Science 111:2953–65.

Hardelin, J.-P. 2001. Kallmann syndrome: Towards molecular pathogenesis. Journal of Molecular Endocrinology 179:75–81.

Oliveira, L.M., Seminara, S.B., Beranova, M., Hayes, F.J., Valkenburgh, S.B., Schiphani, E., Costa, E.M., Latronico, A.C., Crowley, W.F., and Vallejo, M. 2001. The importance of autosomal genes in Kallmann syndrome: Genotype–phenotype correlations and neuroendocrine characteristics. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 86:1532–8.

Dawkins, R. 1982. The Extended Phenotype. Oxford University Press.

Braitenburg, V. 1967. Patterns of projection in the visual system of the fly. I. Retina-lamina projections. Experimental Brain Research 3:271–98.

Lee, C.H., Herman, T., Clandinin, T.R., Lee, R., and Zipursky, S.L. 2001. N-cadherin regulates target specificity in the Drosophila visual system. Neuron 30:437–50; Clandinin, T.R., Lee, C.-H., Herman, T., Lee, R.C., Yang, A.Y., Ovasapyan, S., and Zipursky, S.L. 2001. Drosophila LAR regulates R1-R6 and R7 target specificity in the visual system. Neuron 33:237–48. Also Zipursky, L. interview with the author, and talk to Society for Neuroscience, San Diego, November 2001.

Modrek, B. and Lee, C. 2002. A genomic view of alternative splicing. Nature Genetics 30:13–19.

Schmucker, D., Clemens, J.C., Shu, H., Worby, C.A., Xiao, J., Muda, M., Dixon, J.E., and Zipursky, S.L. 2000. Drosophila Dscam is an axon guidance receptor exhibiting extraordinary molecular diversity. Cell 101:671–84.

Serafini, T. 1999. Finding a partner in a crowd: Neuronal diversity and synaptogenesis. Cell 98:133–6.

Wang, X., Su, H., and Bradley, A. 2002. Molecular mechanisms governing Pcdh-gamma gene expression: Evidence for a multiple promoter and cis-alternative splicing model. Genes and Development 16:1890–905.

Wu, Q., and Maniatis, T. 1999. A striking organization of a large family of human neural cadherin-like cell adhesion genes. Cell 97:779–90; Tasic, B., Nabholz, C.E., Baldwin, K.K., Kim, Y., Rueckert, E.H., Ribich, S.A., Cramer, P., Wu, Q., Axel, R. and Maniatis, T. 2002. Promoter choice determines splice site selection in Protocadherin alpha and gamma Pre-mRNA splicing. Molecular Cell 10:21–33.

Specter, M. 2002. Rethinking the brain. In Best American Science Writing 2002 (ed. M. Ridley), HarperCollins.

H. Cline, interview.

Gomez, M., De Castro, E., Guarin, E., Sasakura, H., Kuhara, A., Mori, I., Bartfai, T., Bargmann, C.I., and Nef, P. 2001. Ca2+ signalling via the neuronal calcium sensor-1 gene regulates associative learning and memory in C. elegans. Neuron 30:241–8.

Rankin, C., Rose, J. and Norman, K. 2001. The use of reporter genes to study the effects of experience on the anatomy of an identified synapse in the nematode C. elegans. Paper delivered at the IBANGS conference, San Diego, November 2001.

Harlow, H. and Harlow, M. 1962. Social deprivation in monkeys. Scientific American 207:136–46.

Meaney, M.J. 2001. Maternal care, gene expression, and the transmission of individual differences in stress reactivity across generations. Annual Reviews of Neuroscience 24:1161–82.

Champagne, F., Diorio, J., Sharma, S., and Meaney, M.J. 2001. Naturally occurring variations in maternal behavior in the rat are associated with differences in estrogen-inducible central oxytocin receptors. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 98:12736–41.

Francis, D.D., Szegda, K., Campbell, G., Martin, W.D., and Insel, T.R. (unpublished). Epigenetic Sources of Behavioral Differences: Mother Nature Meets Mother Nature.

Huxley, A. 1932. Brave New World. Chatto and Windus.

CHAPTER 6: FORMATIVE YEARS

Paradise Regained (1671), Book 4.

Quoted in Nisbett, A. 1976. Konrad Lorenz. Dent.

Nisbett, A. 1976. Konrad Lorenz. Dent.

Spalding, D.A. 1873. Instinct: With original observations on young animals. Macmillan’s Magazine 27:282–93.

Bateson, P. 2000. What must be known in order to understand imprinting? in The Evolution of Cognition (ed. Heyes, C. and Huber, L.). MIT Press.

Gottlieb, G. 1997. Synthesizing Nature–Nurture: Prenatal Roots of Instinctive Behavior. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Barker, D.J., Winter, P.D., Osmond, C., Margetts, B., and Simmonds, S.J. 1989. Weight in infancy and death from ischaemic heart disease. Lancet 8663:57780.

Eriksson, J.G., Forsen, T., Tuomilehto, J., Osmond, C., and Barker, D.J. 2001. Early growth and coronary heart disease in later life: Longitudinal study. British Medical Journal 322:949–53.

Bateson, P. 2001. Fetal experience and good adult design. International Journal of Epidemiology 30:928–34.

Manning, J., Martin, S., Trivers, R., and Soler, M. 2002. Second to 4th digit ratio and offspring sex ratio. Journal of Theoretical Biology 217:93.

. Manning. J.T. and Bundred, P.E. 2000. The ratio of 2nd to 4th digit length: A new predictor of disease predisposition? Medical Hypotheses 54:855–7; Manning, J.T., Baron-Cohen, S., Wheelwright, S., and Sanders, G. 2001. The 2nd to 4th digit ratio and autism. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology 43:160–64.

Bischof, H.J., Geissler, E., and Rollenhagen, A. 2002. Limitations of the sensitive period of sexual imprinting: neuroanatomical and behavioral experiments in the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata). Behavioral Brain Research 133:317–22.

Burr, C. 1996. A Separate Creation: How Biology Makes Us Gay. Bantam Press.

Bailey, M., interview.

Symons, D. 1979. Evolution of Human Sexuality. Oxford University Press.

Blanchard, R. 2001. Fraternal birth order and the maternal immune hypothesis of male homosexuality. Hormones and Behavior 40:105–14.

Cantor, J.M., Blanchard, R., Paterson, A.D., and Bogaert, A.F. 2002. How may gay men owe their sexual orientation to fraternal birth order? Archives of Sexual Behavior 31:63–71.

Blanchard, R. and Ellis, L. 2001. Birth weight, sexual orientation, and the sex of preceding siblings. Journal of Biosocial Science 33:451–67.

Blanchard, R., Zucker, K.J., Cavacas, A., Allin, S., Bradley, S.J., and Schachter, D.C. 2002. Fraternal birth order and birth weight in probably prehomosexual feminine boys. Hormones and Behavior 41:321–7.

Ibid.

Harvey, R.J., McCabe, B.J., Solomonia, R.O., Horn, G., and Darlison, M.G. 1998. Expression of GABAa receptor gamma4 subunit gene: Anatomical distribution of the corresponding mRNA in the domestic chick forebrain and the effect of imprinting training. European Journal of Neuroscience 10:3024–8.

Nedivi, E. 1999. Molecular analysis of developmental plasticity in neocortex. Journal of Neurobiology 41:135–47.

Huang, Z.J., Kirkwood, A., Pizzorusso, T., Porciatti, V., Morales, B., Bear, M.F., Maffei, L., and Tonegawa, S. 1999. BDNF regulates the maturation of inhibition and the critical period of plasticity in mouse visual cortex. cell 98:793–55.

Fagiolini, M. and Hensch, T.K. 2000. Inhibitory threshold for critical-period activation in primary visual cortex. Nature 404:183–6.

Huang, J., interview.

Kegl, J., Senghas, A., and Coppola, M. 1999. Creation through contact: Sign language emergence and sign language change in Nicaragua. In Comparative Grammatical Change: The Intersection of Language Acquisition, Creole Genesis, and Diachronic Syntax (ed. M. DeGraff). MIT Press; Bickerton, D. 1990. Language and Species. University of Chicago Press.

http://www.ling.lancs.ac.uk/monkey/ihe/linguistics/LECTURE4/4victor.htm. Newton, M. 2002. Savage Girls and Wild Boys: A History of Feral Children. Faber.

http://www.ling.lancs.ac.uk/monkey/ihe/linguistics/LECTURE4/4kaspar.htm.

Rymer, R. 1994. Genie: A Scientific Tragedy. Penguin.

Westermarck, E. 1891. History of Human Marriage. Macmillan.

Wolf, A.P. 1995. Sexual Attraction and Childhood Association: A Chinese Brief for Edward Westermarck. Stanford University Press.

Shepher, J. 1971. Mate selection among second-generation kibbutz adolescents: Incest avoidance and negative imprinting. Archives of Sexual Behavior 1:293–307.

Walter, A. 1997. The evolutionary psychology of mate selection in Morocco—A multivariate analysis. Human Nature 8:113–37.

Price, J.S. 1995. The Westermarck trap: A possible factor in the creation of Frankenstein. Ethology and Sociobiology 16:349–53.

Thornhill. N.W. 1991. An evolutionary analysis of rules regulating human inbreeding and marriage. Behavioral and Brain Services 14:247–60.

Greenber, M. and Littlewood, R. 1995. Post-adoption incest and phenotypic matching: Experience, personal meanings, and biosocial implications. British Journal of Medical Psychology 68:29–44.

Bevc, I. and Silverman, I. 1993. Early proximity and intimacy between siblings and incestuous behavior—A test of the Westermarck theory. Ethology and Sociobiology 14:171–81.

Deichmann, U. 1996. Biologists under Hitler. Harvard University Press.

Nisbett, A. 1976. Konrad Lorenz, Dent.

CHAPTER 7: LEARNING LESSONS

Turgenev, I. 1861/1975. Fathers and Sons. Penguin.

Todes, D.P. 1997. Pavlov’s physiology factory. Isis 88:205–46.

Kimble, G.A. 1993. Evolution of the nature–nurture issue in the history of psychology. In Nature Nurture and Psychology (ed. Plomin, R. and McClearn, G.E.). American Psychological Association.

Frolov, Y.P. 1938. Pavlov and His School. Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner, and Co.

Waelti, P., Dickinson, A., and Schultz, W. 2001. Dopamine responses comply with basic assumptions of formal learning theory. Nature 412:43–8.

Watson, J.B. 1924. Behaviorism. Norton.

Dubnau, J., Grady, L., Kitamoto, T., and Tully, T. 2001. Disruption of neurotransmission in Drosophila mushroom body blocks retrieval but not acquisition of memory. Nature 411:476–80.

Tully, T., interview.

Husi, H. and Grant, S.G.N. 2001. Proteomics of the nervous system. Trends in Neurosciences 24:259–66.

Watson, J.B. 1913. Psychology as the behaviorist views it. Psychological Review 20:158–77.

Rilling, M. 2000. John Watson’s paradoxical struggle to explain Freud. American Psychologist 55:301–12.

Watson, J.B. and Rayner, R. 1920. Conditioned emotional reactions. Journal of Experimental Psychology 3:1–14.

Watson, J.B. 1924. Behaviorism. Norton.

Figes, O. 1996. A People’s Tragedy. Jonathan Cape.

Frolov, Y.P. 1938. Pavlov and His School. Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner, and Co.

Figes, O. 1996. A People’s Tragedy. Jonathan Cape.

All quotations from or about Lysenko are from Joravsky, D. 1986. The Lysenko Affair. University of Chicago Press.

Joravsky, D. 1986. The Lysenko Affair. University of Chicago Press.

Ibid.

Gould, S.J. 1978. Ever since Darwin. Burnett Books.

Pinker, S. 2002. The Blank Slate. Penguin.

Blum, D. 2002. Love at Goon Park. Perseus Publishing.

Harlow, H.F. 1958. The nature of love. American Psychologist 13:673–85.

For a review of Mineka’s work, see Ohman, A. and Mineka, S. 2001. Fears, phobias, and preparedness: Toward an evolved module of fear and fear learning. Psychological Review 108:483–522.

Fredrikson, M., Annas, P., and Wik, G. 1997. Parental history, aversive exposure, and the development of snake and spider phobia in women. Behavior Research Therapy 35:23–8.

. Ledoux, J. 2002. Synaptic Self: How Our Brains Become Who We Are. Viking.

Ohman, A. and Mineka, S. 2001, Fears, phobias, and preparedness: Toward an evolved module of fear and fear learning. Psychological Review 108:483–522.

Kendler, K.S., Jacobson, K.C., Myers, J., and Prescott, C.A. 2002. Sex differences in genetic and environmental risk factors for irrational fears and phobias. Psychological Medicine 32:209–17.

Hebb, D.O. 1949. The Organization of Behavior: A Neuropsychological Theory. Wiley.

Elman, J., Bates, E.A., Johnson, M.H., Karmiloff-Smith, A., Parisi, D., and Plunkett, K. 1996. Rethinking Innateness. MIT Press.

Ibid.

Fodor, J. 2001. The Mind Doesn’t Work That Way. MIT Press.

Pinker, S. 2002. The Blank Slate. Penguin.

Skinner, B.F. 1948/1976. Walden Two. Prentice Hall.

See www.loshorcones.org.mx.

CHAPTER 8: CONUNDRUMS OF CULTURE

Essay on Human Understanding, 1692. This goes to show that Locke was not the blind blank-slater he has often been made out to be.

Kuper, A. 1999. Culture: The Anthropologists’ Account. Harvard University Press.

Muller-White, L. 1998. Franz Boas among the Inuit of Baffin Island, 1883–1884: Letters and Journals. University of Toronto Press.

Quoted in Degler, C.N. 1991. In Search of Human Nature. Oxford University Press.

Quoted in Degler, C.N. 1991. In Search of Human Nature. Oxford University Press.

See New York Times, 8 October 2002, p. F3. Also: Sparks, C.S. and Jantz, R.L. 2002. A reassessment of human cranial plasticity: Boas revisited. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 8 Oct. 2002.

Freeman, D. 1999. The Fateful Hoaxing of Margaret Mead: A Historical Analysis of Her Samoan Research. Westview Press.

Durkheim, É. 1895. The Rules of the Sociological Method. (1962 edition. Free Press).

. Pinker, S. 2002. The Blank State. Penguin.

Plotkin, H. 2002. The Imagined World Made Real: Towards a Natural Science of Culture. Penguin.

On the television program The Cultured Ape. Channel 4. Produced by Brian Leith, Scorer Associates.

De Waal, F. 2001. The Ape and the Sushi Master. Penguin.

Tomasello, M. 1999. The Cultural Origins of Human Cognition. Harvard University Press.

De Waal, F. 2001. The Ape and the Sushi Master. Penguin.

Tomasello, M. 1999. The Cultural Origins of Human Cognition. Harvard University Press.

Tiger, L. and Fox, R. 1971. The Imperial Animal. Transaction.

Rizzolatti, G., personal communication.

Rizzolatti, G. and Arbib, M.A. 1998. Language within our grasp. Trends in Neurosciences 21:188–94.

Iacobini, M., Koski, L.M., Brass, M., Bekkering, H., Woods, R.P., Dubeau, M.-C., Mazziotta, J.C., and Rizzolatti, G. 2001. Reafferent copies of imitated actions in the right superior temporal cortex. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 98:13995–9.

Kohler, E., Keysers, C., Umilta, M.A., Fogassi, L., Gallese, V., and Rizzolatti, G. 2002. Hearing sounds, understanding actions: Action representation in auditory mirror neurons. Science 297:846–8.

Lai, C.S., Fisher, S.E. et al. 2001. A forkhead-domain gene is mutated in a severe speech and language disorder. Nature 413: 519–23.

Enard, W., Przeworski, M., Fisher, S.E., Lai, C.S.L., Wiebe, V., Kitano, T., Monaco, A.P., and Paabo, S. 2002. Molecular evolution of FOXP2, a gene involved in speech and language. Nature 418:869–72.

Iacoboni, M., Woods, R.P., Brass, M., Bekkering, H., Mazziotta, J.C., and Rizzolatti, G. 199. Cortical mechanisms of human imitation, Science 286:2526–8.

Cantalupo, C. and Hopkins, W.D. 2001. Asymmetric Broca’s area in great apes. Nature 414:505.

Newman, A.J., Bavelier, D., Corina, D., Jezzard, P., and Neville, H.J. 2002. A critical period for right hemisphere recruitment in American Sign Language processing. Nature Neuroscience 5:76–80.

Dunbar, R. 1996. Gossip, Grooming, and the Evolution of Language. Faber and Faber.

. Walker, A. and Shipman, P. 1996. The Wisdom of Bones. Weidenfeld and Nicolson.

Tattersall, I. E-mail correspondence.

Wilson, F.R. 1998. The Hand. Pantheon.

Calvin, W.H. and Bickerton, D. 2001. Lingua ex Machina. MIT Press.

Stokoe, W.C. 2001. Language in Hand: Why Sign Came before Speech. Gallaudet University Press.

Durham, W.H., Boyd, R., and Richerson, P.J. 1997. Models and forces of cultural evolution. In Human by Nature (ed. Weingert, P., Mitchell, S.D., Richerson, P.J., and Maasen, S.). Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Deacon, T. 1997. The Symbolic Species: The Co-Evolution of Language and the Human Brain. Penguin.

Blackmore, S. 1999. The Meme Machine. Oxford University Press.

Cronk, L. 1999. That Complex Whole: Culture and the Evolution of Human Behavior. Westview Press.

Pitts, M. and Roberts, M. 1997. Fairweather Eden. Century.

Kohn, M. 1999. As We Know It: Coming to Terms with an Evolved Mind. Granta.

Low, B.S. 2000. Why Sex Matters: A Darwinian Look at Human Behavior. Princeton University Press.

Dunbar, R., Knight, C., and Power, C. 1999. The Evolution of Culture. Edinburgh University Press.

Whiten, A. and Byrne, R.W. (eds.). 1997. Machiavellian Intelligence II. Cambridge University Press.

Wright, R. 2000. Nonzero: History, Evolution, and Human Cooperation. Random House.

Ridley, M. 1996. The Origins of Virtue. Penguin.

Ofek, H. 2001. Second Nature. Cambridge University Press.

Tattersall, I. 1998. Becoming Human. Harcourt Brace.

Wright, R. 2000. Nonzero: History, Evolution, and Human Cooperation. Random House.

Ridley, M. 1996. The Origins of Virtue. Penguin.

Neville-Sington, P. and Sington, D. 1993. Paradise Dreamed: How Utopian Thinkers Have Changed the World. Bloomsbury.

Milne, H. 1986. Bhagwan: The God That Failed. Caliban Books.

CHAPTER 9: THE SEVEN MEANINGS OF “GENE”

Dennett, D. Darwin’s Dangerous Idea. Penguin.

De Vries, H. 1900. Sur la loi de disjonction des hybrides. Comptes Rendus de l’Académie des Sciences (Paris) 130:845–7.

Henig, R.M. 2000. A Monk and Two Peas. Weidenfeld and Nicolson.

Tudge, C. 2001. In Mendel’s Footnotes. Vintage; Orel, V. 1996. Gregor Mendel: the First Geneticist. Oxford University Press.

Watson, J.D. and Crick, F.H.C. 1953. Molecular structure of nucleic acid: A structure for deoxyribonucleic acid. Nature 171:737. Watson, J. with Berry, A. 2003. DNA: The Secret of Life. Knopf.

Ptashne, M. and Gann, A. 2002. Genes and Signals. Cold Spring Harbor Press.

Midgley, M. 1979. Gene juggling. Philosophy 54:439–58.

Canning, C. and Lovell-Badge, R. Sry and sex determination: How lazy can it be? Trends in Genetics 18:111–13.

Randolph Nesse, personal communication.

Chagnon, N. 1992. Yanomamo: The Last Days of Eden. Harcourt Brace.

Miller, G. 2000. The Mating Mind. Doubleday.

Wilson, E.O. 1994. Naturalist. Island Press.

Wilson, E.O. 1975. Sociobiology. Harvard University Press.

Segerstrale, U. 2000. Defenders of the Truth. Oxford University Press.

Anthony Leeds, Barbara Beckwith, Chuck Madansky, David Culver, Elizabeth Allen, Herb Schreier, Hiroshi Inouye, Jon Beckwith, Larry Miller, Margaret Duncan, Miriam Rosenthal, Reed Pyeritz, Richard C. Lewontin, Ruth Hubbard, Steven Chorover, and Stephen Gould 1975. Letter to the New York Review of Books. 13 Nov. 1975.

Segerstrale, U. 2000. Defenders of the Truth. Oxford University Press.

Lewontin, R. 1993. The Doctrine of DNA: Biology of Ideology. Penguin.

Tooby, J. and Cosmides, L. 1992. The psychological foundations of culture. In The Adapted Mind (ed. Barkow, J.H., Cosmides, L., and Tooby, J.). Oxford University Press.

Ibid.

Daly, M. and Wilson, M. 1988. Homicide. Aldine.

Hrdy, S. 2000. Mother Nature. Ballantine Books.

Durkheim, É. 1895. The Rules of the Sociological Method (1962 edition, Free Press).

CHAPTER 10: A BUDGET OF PARADOXICAL MORALS

Wolfe, T. 2000. Hooking Up. Picador.

Ellis, B.J. and Garber, J. 2000. Psychosocial antecedents of variation in girls’ pubertal timing: Maternal depression, stepfather presence, and marital and family stress. Child Development 71:485–501.

Harris, J.R. 1998. The Nurture Assumption. Bloomsbury.

Harris, J.R. 1995. Where is the child’s environment? A group socialization theory of development. Psychological Review. 102:458–9.

Wills, J.E. 2001. 1688: A Global History. Granta.

But other studies reveal some rather dramatic negative correlations between parents and children: the effect of the parent in these studies was to drive the child to do the opposite. The children of hippies became investment bankers.

Lytton, H. 2000. Towards a model of family-environmental and child-biological influences on development. Developmental Review 20:150–79.

Mednick, S.A., Gabrielli, W.F., and Hutchings, B. 1984. Genetic influences in criminal convictions: Evidence from an adoption cohort. Science 224:891–4.

Scarr, S. 1996. How people make their own environments: Implications for parents and policy makers. Psychology, Public Policy, and Law 2:204–28.

Collins, W.A., Maccoby, E.E., Steinberg, L., Hetherington, E.M., and Bernstein, M.H. 2000. The case for nature and nurture. American Psychologist 55:218–32.

Bennett, A.J., Lesch, K.P., Heils, A., Long, J.C., Lorenz, J.G., Shoaf, S.E., Champoux, M., Suomi, S.J., Linnoila, M.V., and Higley, J.D. 2002. Early experience and serotonin transporter gene variation interact to influence primate CNS function. Molecular Psychiaty 7:118–22.

Smith, A. 1776. The Wealth of Nations. London.

Ibid.

Durkheim, E. (1933). The Division of Labor in Society. Free Press, New York.

Buss, D.M. 1994. The Evolution of Desire. Basic Books.

Lewontin, R.C. 1972. The apportionment of human diversity. Evolutionary Biology 6:381–98.

Kurzban, R., Tooby, J., and Cosmides, L. 2001. Can race be erased? Coalitional computation and social categorization. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 98:15387–92.

Caspi, A., McClay, J., Moffitt, T., Mill, J., Martin, J., Craig, I.W., Taylor, A., and Poulton, R. 2002. Role of genotype in the cycle of violence in maltreated children. Science 297:851–4. Also, Terrie Moffitt and Avshalom Caspi, E-mail correspondence. See also the Nuffield Council on Bioethics report (2002). Genetics and Behavior: The Ethical Context. Incidentally, as Judith Rich Harris pointed out to me, the correlation between parental abuse and antisocial behavior in the Dunedin study cannot be assumed to be causal. It may be that another undiscovered gene affects both: a long history of fallacious assumptions teaches us to be cautious before assuming that parents’ actions cause effects in children.

James, W. 1884. The dilemma of determinism. In The Writings of William James (ed. McDermott, J.J.). University of Chicago Press.

Walter, H. 2001. Neurophilosophy of Free Will. MIT Press.

Quoted by Walter, H. 2001. Neurophilosophy of Free Will. MIT Press.

Hamlet, Act 5, scene 2.

Freeman, W.J. 1999. How Brains Make Up Their Minds. Weidenfeld and Nicolson.

Francis Crick, interview.

Tim Tully, interview.

EPILOGUE: HOMO STRAMINEUS: THE STRAW MAN

James, W. 1906. The moral equivalent of war. Address to Stanford University. Printed as Lecture 11 in Memories and Studies. Longman Green and Co. (1911):267–96.

Bouchard, T. 1999. Genes, environment, and personality. In The Nature–Nurture Debate: The Essential Readings (ed. Ceci, S.J and Williams, W.M.). Blackwell.

Wilson, E.O. 1978. On Human Nature. Harvard University Press.

Dawkins, R. 1981. Selfish genes in race or politics. Nature 289:528.

Pinker, S. 1997. How the Mind Works. Norton.

Rose, S. 1997. Lifelines. Penguin.

Gould, S.J. 1978. Ever since Darwin. Burnett Books.

Lewontin, R. 1993. The Doctrine of DNA: Biology as Ideology. Penguin.

Tim Tully, interview.

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