Book: Encyclopedia of Witchcraft: The Complete A-Z for the Entire Magical World

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Main entries are indicated in bold

Aatxe/Etsai 551–2

Abátàn or Abátà 679–80

Abei no Seimei 706

Aberdeen Witch Trials 822

Abondia 368–9, 784

Abraham 593, 611

Abraham ben Simeon 128

Abra-Melin 128

absinthe 501–2

Abundantia 368

Achilles 169, 248, 465, 563, 751

aconitum 184

Actaeon 100, 541

Adam 32, 107, 154, 400, 611

Addams Family, The 94, 308–9, 312

Addams, Charles 308–9

Adler, Margot 256

Adonis 541

Ady, Thomas 138

Aebutius 776, 777

Aeëtes, King of Colchis 750

aegis 635

Aeneas 19

Aeneid 386, 612

Aeshma Deva 553

Aesir 358, 369, 370–1, 384, 385, 388, 391, 405, 533, 542

Afagddu 378

Afanas’ev, Aleksandr 463, 491

Affair of the Queen’s Necklace 719

Africa 33, 43, 76, 92, 157, 246, 305, 508, 576, 578, 652, 742

Atlas bears 42

baboon-witchcraft association 36

      black hen’s feathers cleansing 50

      cross symbols 854

      fertility dolls 608

      horned gods 548

      hyena–witchcraft association 68–70

      jackals 53

      juju 340–1

      leopard–royalty association 76

      magic lamps 595

      owl familiars 79

      owl–witch association 80

      rabbit trickster spirits 85

      sacred cows 27

      tarantism 249

      transformation 96

      weasel–witchcraft association 59

      witchcraze 5, 69, 775–6

      zombi 365

African deities see Mami Waters; Papa Legba

African spirits see orisha; zar

African Diaspora deities see Chango; Eshu-Elegbara; Ogun; Oya

African Diaspora traditions 368, 405, 407, 441, 449, 656

      drum spirit summoning 302

      parade of spirits 245

      pumpkins 522

      see also Candomblé; Obeah; Vodou

African-American tradition 627

      conjure tales 467–9

      doctor 364

      jumping the broomstick 688

      see also conjure; hoodoo

Afro-Brazilian spirits see Pomba Gira

Afro-Brazilian tradition

      Exu 565

      influence of Spiritism 353

      orixa 347

      see also Candomblé Kimbanda; Macumba; Umbanda

Afro-Caribbean Santeria 120

Afro-Cuban tradition see Palo

Agatha, St 197–8

Agdistis 554

agricultural revolution 418

Agrippa von Nettesheim, Henricus Cornelius 55, 115, 146, 284, 611, 700, 706–9, 725, 729, 731, 746, 755

àjé 323, 408

akelarre/aquelarre 215, 317, 323, 552, 677

Akerbeltz 552

Alarcón, Ruiz de 78

Albania 249, 433, 436

Alberti, Guiseppe 524

Albertus Magnus 115, 123, 707, 709–10

Albumasar 593

alchemist 323

alchemists 624, 813; see also Albertus Magnus; Cagliostro; Dee, Arthur; Dee, John; Faust, Johannes; Flamel, Nicholas; Hermes Trismegistus; Kelley, Edward; Paracelsus; Sendivogius, Michael; Seton, Alexander

alchemy 145, 584, 585–90, 831–2

Alcmene 61–2

alder 150–2, 379, 679

alectromancy 50

Alexander V, Pope 785

Alexandria 57, 117, 586, 589, 608, 736

Alexandria Library 133

Alfonso the Wise 127

Algeria 213, 285

Alibeck the Egyptian 131

alkaloids 155, 175, 426

All Hallows’ Eve 191, 201, 303

All Saints’ Day 201

allies 35–6

allure 323

al-Majriti 127

almanacs 109–10

Almaqah 552–3

alrauna (alruane, alruna, alrune) 166–7, 176, 252, 323, 494, 618

Alraunas 710

alraundelberin 323

Alraune (Ewers) 168, 252, 7, 289

Alraune films 252–3

Amaltheia 696

Amanita Muscaria 75, 82, 152–4, 155, 156, 162, 430, 525, 582

Amaterasu 51, 840

Amazonian mythology 75

Amazons 25, 374, 696

Americas 43, 508, 652, 854

      malevolent witchcraft 605

Amphitrite 519

Ana 207, 437

ana-suromai 541

Anat 163, 395, 511

      Corn Mother 422

Anatolia 76, 396, 399, 663, 696

      midwife brooms 687

Anatolian deities see Kybele

Anatolian spirits see dactyls

ancient Egypt 110, 160, 127, 130, 152, 346, 386, 628, 644, 689, 738, 759, 833

      alchemy 586, 587–8, 589

      ana-suromai 541

      astrology 591, 593

      baboons 37–8

      Bastet cult 45–6

      “black land” 585

      “Book of Thoth” 107

      cake offerings 509

      castanets 302

      cat fertility charm 45

      color assocations 54, 585

      creation myths 15, 66, 489, 569, 607

      dogs 54

      domestic cats 45, 46

      donkeys 56

      Feast of the Dead 199

      frogs and fertility 65–6

      Gnosticism 30

      heka (magic power) 15, 33, 339, 530, 600

      image magic 608

      kodia 324

      nettle/honey contraceptives 172

      nightjar blood 43

      owl familiars 79

      pork taboo 81

      sacred cows 27

      sacred rabbits 85

      sacred vultures 71

      scorpion-power 86–7

      Tarot origin 621

      therapeutic temples 646

      travelling magicians 737

      word charms 600

ancient Egyptian deities see Anubis; Hathor; Heket; Isis; Khnum; Neith; Serket; Set; Thoth

ancient Greece 184, 219

      alchemy 586

      astrology 591, 592

      bathhouses 646

      conventional views on Maenads 244

      crow/raven trickster heroes 52

      ergotism 427

      goat-man artifacts 548

      goats 68

      goes/goetes 336–7

      Hades euphemisms 42

      herms 655

      iynx love charm 74

      labrys 696

      Magi 343

      magicians’ handbooks 107

      mandrake anaesthetic 165

      midwife brooms 687

      necromancy 612–13

      pharmakin/pharmaka 349

      red food taboo 519

      sacred cows 27

      sacred mistletoe 169

      spinning divination 839

      St John’s wort 178

      theurgy 356

      toad fertility symbols 65

      willow–witch association 183

      witch–healing–poison link 607, 833

      wormwood infusions 501

      see also Eleusinian Mysteries

ancient Greek deities see Artemis; Demeter; Dionysus; Hecate; Hestia; Hephaestus; Hermes; Moirae; Nyx; Pan; Persephone

ancient Greek festivals see Anthestheria

ancient Greek spirits see dryads; satyrs

ancient Roman deities see Abundantia; Dionysus; Juno entries; Kybele; Parcae; Pomona; Saturn

ancient Roman festivals see Feralia; Festival of Diana; Floralia; Juno Sospita; Lemuria; Lupercalia Mania; Parentalia; Saturnalia

ancient Rome 110, 219, 245, 767, 768

      abortion laws 833

      acceptance of Christianity 137–8

      apple cultivation 202

      Bacchanalia persecution 776–7

      bathhouses 646

      Bellona rituals 155

      book burning 115, 137

      cake offerings 509

      conjurari outlawed 329

      crucifixion 165–6

      cult of Ceres 423

      cult of Isis 394

      cult of Kybele 397–8

      donkey-fertility association 56

      Druidry 332

      Ember Days 333

      Etruscans 134–5

      fascis (birch bark bundles) 156

      fava beans 514

      ferret rat-catchers 61

      foundation by Faunus 548

      geese watchdogs 488

      goats 68

      Marsi people 371

      necromancy 613

      nettle/honey contraceptives 172

      Rome owl familiars 79

      phallic amulets 335

      pig fertility charms 83

      poultry divination 50–1

      sacred mistletoe 169

      Sibylline Books 136–8

      snake cakes 523

      snakes and childbirth 88

      strix, strigae 354, 355

      toad fertility symbols 65

      witch euphemisms 351

      wolf totem 101

      women’s power issues 79–80

Andersen, Anne Marie 482

Andersen, Hans Christian 260, 461, 468, 469, 461, 481–5

Andean deities see Mamayutas; Pachamama; Saramama

Andes 150

      sacred midwives 833, 837

      Spanish Inquisition 339, 825

      transformation 96–7

angelica 175

Angerboda 369–71, 388, 542, 544, 547, 660

      hag aspect 532–3

Angitia 247, 329, 371, 523, 761

Anglo-Saxons 169, 436

animals 34–106

      chariot-pulling 626

      speaking 465

anime see manga and anime

animism 18–19

anisette 503

Anthestheria 186–7, 197

Anthony of Padua, Saint 427

Anu 535

Anubis 53, 67, 54, 394

Aphrodite 67, 68, 489, 503, 510, 541, 626, 699, 733, 750, 854

Apkarian-Russell, Pamela E. 678

Apollo 51, 57, 68, 91, 178, 305, 372, 373, 383, 664, 834

Appalachian Holiness tradition 92

apple crowdie 516

apple group ritual 504

apple love spell 504

apples 154, 500, 503–5

April Fool’s Day 409

Aquinas, Thomas 784

Arabian deities see Almaqah

Arabian peninsula 37

Arabic tradition

      alchemy 590

      baraka 325

      dream-books 113

      mandrake and fertility 164

      Picatrix 127

      snakes and childbirth 88

      Solomon 62, 124

Arachne 93, 840

arachnophobia 93

Aradia 177, 372–3, 390

Aradia or The Gospel of Witches (Leland) 117–20, 251, 372, 390, 510, 666, 753, 768

Arcadia 389, 568, 576

Arcadian deities see Hermes; Pan

Archie Comics 230

Ardhanari 622

Arduinna 84, 659

Argentina 40, 666

Ariadne 187, 384, 574–5, 696

Arikara 423

Aristotle 44, 45, 133, 709

Armoise (Mugwort Essential Oil) 169

Arnobius 135

Artemidoros, The 113

Artemis 24, 43, 55, 83, 100, 101, 169, 170–1, 182, 198, 312, 274, 373–4, 387, 436, 501, 510, 541, 550, 576, 645, 659, 663, 834

      identification with Diana 372, 373, 374, 380–1

Artemisia 24, 169–71

Arthur, King 363, 402, 682, 689, 732, 752, 753

asatru 324

Asgard 370, 371, 384, 388, 392, 405, 545

ashé 324

Asherah 68, 162–3, 181, 237, 239, 374, 510, 511, 550, 663, 682, 846

Ashmodai 553

Ashtaroth 797

Asia 43, 70, 76, 92, 177, 180, 246, 305, 369, 508, 652, 847

      bat beliefs 39

      “dressing” wells 682

      grave cauldrons 690

      horned gods 548

      kurgans 441

      magic lamps 595

      opium 174

      owl familiars 79

      sacred bears 41

      shamanic dance 465

      weasel–witchcraft association 59

Askhe-tanne-mat 94

Asklepios 55, 90, 92, 174, 329

Asmodeus 55, 116, 400, 487, 553, 630, 797

Astarte 163, 510, 511, 550

Asteria 387

Asteroth 729

astrologers see Albertus Magnus; Cagliostro; Dee, John; Lilly, William; Faust, Johannes; Hermes Trismegistus; Leek, Sybil; Lenormand, Marie; Nostradamus; Paracelsus

astrology 86, 109, 347, 584, 590–4, 603

      Babylonian 217, 592, 593

astronomy 590, 594

athamé 684–5, 686

Athanasius 854

Athena 80, 93, 304, 354, 382, 582, 634, 635, 696

      and metalworking 635

      and spinning 840

atropine 155

Attis 541, 553–4

August Herbs 209

Augustine, St 32, 785

Augustus Caesar 137

Aunt Caroline Dyer Blues 728

Aunt Sally’s Policy Players Dream Book and Wheel of Fortune 113–14

Australia 43, 592

Austria 188, 223, 734, 758, 835

      Corn Mother 423

      Dragon Cave 42

      Krampuslauf 570–1

      Perchtennacht 245

      postcards 320

      Schemenlaufen Festival 698

      witchcraze 774

Autolykos 102

autumn equinox 210

Aventinus 323

ayahuasca 75

Ayida Wedo 91

Aymara people 65

Azazel 68, 554–5, 561

Aztec codices 135–6

Aztec deities see Tezcatlipoca; Tlazolteotl

Aztec spirits see Cihuateteo

Aztecs 628, 833

      frogs and fertility 65

      hemerologies 110

      jaguars 75

      nahual ritual 78

      obsidian mirrors 699

      “owl-men” 80

      sweathouses see temescal

      terracotta dog burial 54

      understanding of death 191

Baal 25, 62, 188, 324, 422

Baal/Ba’alat 324, 557

ba’al shem 324

Baalat ob 324

Baal-Zebub 62

Baalzebub 324

baba 324

Baba Yaga 17, 156, 174, 196, 206, 270, 274, 296, 375–7, 395, 411, 424, 465, 510, 563, 658, 659, 688, 700

      Corn Mother 422, 439

      hag aspect 533

Baba Yaga stories 10–11, 461, 466, 491–2

      Baba Yaga (1) 492

      Baba Yaga (2) 492

      Prince Danila Govorila 493

      Vasilisa the Wise 473–4, 475–6, 494–6

Babalu-Aye 55

babaylan 324

Babi (Baba) 38

baboons 36–9

Babylonia 340, 420, 738, 759

      astrology 217, 592, 593

      Deluge 511

      Maklu 607

Babylonian deities see Gula Bau

Bacchanalia 324, 57, 80, 329

      persecution 776–7

Bacchanals 324, 382, 776–7

Bacchus see Dionysus

Badbh 51, 52

Bagatella 325

Bahram I of Persia 31

BaKongo people 97

Balaam 56

balazar 324, 365

Balch, Anthony 262

Bald Mountain 212, 216, 293, 669, 671–2

Baldur/Balder 19, 162, 169, 385, 406, 544, 546, 547

Balent, Jim 232–3

Balfour, Margaret 822

Balkan spirits see Vila

Balkans 256, 461, 843, 847

      fairy doctors 447

      “fairy societies” 451, 462

      goat dance 242

      Saint Helen 460

      vampire–werewolf–witch link 40, 216, 357, 358

      werewolf flower 103

Baltic deities see Ragana; Rugiu Boba; Saule; Svantovit

Baltic tradition

      Lauma 438

      snake reverence 92

      transformation 96

Bamana/Bambara 76, 403

Bandai Entertainment 299

bane 148

banias 647–9

Banneker, Benjamin 110

banniks 648–9

banshee 325, 434, 441–2

Bantu 69, 346

baobhan sith 434

Baphomet 57, 555–6

baraka 325

Barbara, St 351

Barbato, St 665

Bardon, Franz 705, 710–11, 735

Barnes, Elizabeth 780, 781

Barrett, Francis 126, 709, 746

barrows 325, 440, 441

Basil, St 653

Basque deities see Aatxe/Etsai; Akerbeltz; Boch de Biterna; Mari

Basque region

      sorguiñe 353

      witch-summoning spell 604

      witchcraze 67, 144, 317, 556–7, 677, 777–9

      xorguina 364

      xorguinería 364

      see also akelarres; La Hendaye Beach; Witches’ Caves of Zugarramurdi

Bastet 45–6, 245, 568

bathhouses 270, 645–51, 661

bats 39–41

Bau 55

Baubo 284, 541

Baum, L. Frank 272, 273, 295, 296, 297

Bautista, Fray Juan 78

Bava, Mario 266

Bavaria 508, 523

Bavarian Purity Act (1516) 506

Bayou St John 213, 247, 679

bean divination 505

bears 41–3, 82, 248, 350

Beauty and the Beast 8

Beelzebub 62

beer 505–6

Befana la Strega/Befana la Vecchia 223, 377–8

Bekker, Balthasar 138, 139

Bel (Belenus) 25, 188

Bell, Book and Candle 3, 253–4, 260, 263, 310, 814

belladonna 149, 154–5, 694

Bellona 155

bells 685–6

Belorussia 206, 358

Beltane 187–9, 205, 208, 217, 509, 534, 538

Beltane cake 506–7, 534

Beltane Carline 507, 534

Beltane Caudle 507–8

Benandanti 245, 311, 325–6, 334, 341, 356, 430, 754, 813

Benevento 181, 238, 459, 524, 665–6, 813

Beowulf 535, 542, 639

Berach, St 333

Berbers 331m

Bereginy 434–5, 645, 845

Berendt, John 267

Bergman, Ingmar 242, 265, 269, 274

Bergson, Henri 748

berserkers 42–3, 430, 544

Bertha, wife of Pepin 490

Bertha, wife of Robert II 490

Bes 301

Beta Israel 72

Bewitched 3, 10, 260, 308, 309–10, 312, 313

Bibby, Grandma 764

Bible 8–9, 27, 88–90, 139, 110, 176, 181, 322, 324, 449, 463, 449, 463, 465, 557, 601, 607, 637, 662, 663, 671, 728, 737, 766, 833

binding 326

birch 156

birth-spirit fairies 433–4

Bishop, Bridget 693, 782

Black Annis 47, 535

Black Death (Bubonic Plague) 174, 241, 242, 247, 249, 269, 389, 755, 772

Black Dogs 432

Black Herman’s Secrets of Magic 132

Black Macbeth (The Voodoo Macbeth) 264

Black Madonnas 394, 423, 631

Black Magic 717

Black Mass 145, 326–7, 602

Black Peter 222, 406–7, 581–2

Black Pullet 120, 127

Black Widow, The 226–7

Black Widow spiders 94

Blair Witch Project, The 254–5, 274

Blanckenstein, Chaterina 805

Blavatsky, Helena Petrova 711–14, 306, 722, 744, 706, 762

blessings 848–9

Blodeuwedd 80

Blokula, Blockula, Blakulla, Blokulla 216, 672–3, 826

blues (music) 307–8

Bocal, Pierre 779

Boch de Biterna/Boch de Biterne 556–7

Bock Beer 508

Bodin, Jean 48, 139, 146, 236, 828, 835

Boguet, Henri 140, 797, 837

Bohemia 690

Boisdeau, Jeanne 676–7

bokor/bòkò 327

Boleyn, Anne 86, 787

Bolingbroke, Roger 787

Bolivia 65, 156, 671

bolline 686

Bolotnyi 680

bomoh 327

Bond, Elijah J. 615

Boniface 181

Bonner, Archbishop 726

bonoeman 327

Book of Acts 132, 375, 618, 767

Book of Enoch 743

Book of Exodus 486

Book of Genesis 53, 89, 400, 835

Book of Isaiah 400

Book of Jeremiah 511

Book of Job 854

Book of Kings 632

Book of Leviticus 554, 583

Book of Pow-Wows (Hohmann) 121

Book of Psalms 600, 854

Book of Raziel, The 107

Book of Revelation 257, 501, 720, 722

Book of Samuel 728

Book of San Cipriano and Santa Justina, The 122

Book of Shadows (Gardner) 111, 113, 723, 733, 768

Book of Taliesin 378

Book of Thoth 107, 621

books 107–46 see also literature

Books of Magic, The 227, 228

Books of Shadows 110–13

Boris Gudunov, Tsar 727

Borromeo, Frederico 141

Bosch, Hieronymous 427, 586

bosorka/bosorkania 327

Bosse, Marie (La Veuve) 798–9

Bossu 557

boszorkány 327, 462

boszorkányhab (Witch’s Froth) 504–5

botanicals 147–84, 220–1

      flying ointments 694

      protective 853

      Russian tradition 672

      Siquijor 669

      see also herbalism

Bothwell, Lord 747, 820, 821, 822

Botticelli 731

Boujeloud 557–8

Brahe, Tycho 594

Bran 689

Branwen 689

brauche 327

brauchen 327

braucher 327

Brazil 405

      fig hand 850

      Gruta das Bruxas 662

      Pomba Gira 566

      werewolf transformation 103

      see also Candomblé

Brazilian deities see Exu; Pomba Gira

Breac, Aida 715

bread 508–9

Brer Rabbit 85

Breton deities 489; see also Dahut

Breton spirits see Korrigans

Breton tradition 218

      birth spirits 433

      Day of the Dead offering 521

      Samhain libation 218

      werewolf transformation 104

      see also Ys

Briar Rose 462, 470–1

Brigid 84, 156, 177, 189, 197, 204–5, 247, 562, 682, 834

      and metalworking 635

Brigid, St 205, 635

Bripio, Pierina de 812

Britain/United Kingdom 82, 150, 155, 184, 192, 208, 218, 364, 385, 330, 529, 753

      aboriginal people 440

      Black Dogs 432

      black hen killing 50

      cauldron offerings 690

      cunning folk 330

      Druidry proscribed 332

      fairy roads 451–2

      Halloween 201–2, 518

      lucky black cats 50

      Mother’s Night 222

      Pancake Tuesday 521

      rabbit’s foot charm 86

      rabbit-witch association 85–6

      “Scrumpy” 525

      spectral black hounds 55

      transformation 96

      Wicca 361

      wild cats 46–7

      Witchcraft Acts see Witchcraft Acts

British West Indies 330, 702

British Museum 117, 124

British North American colonies

      witchcraze 779–84

Brittany 695, 751; see also Breton

Broadsword Comics 232, 233

Brocken, The 151, 216, 284, 385, 410, 673–4

brooms 686–8, 694, 855

Brossier, Marthe

Brotherhood of Masters 713

Brown Fairy (Lang) 411

Browning, Tod 277

bruja, brujo, brujeria 327–8

Bruno, Giordano 594

bruxsa 328

Bûche de Noël 526

Buckland, Raymond 2, 5, 678, 714–15

Budapest, Z. 715–16

budas (“hyena-people”) 71–2

Buddhism 63, 560, 714, 722

      Obon Festival 200

Buddhists 588

Budge, E. A. Wallis 393

Buffy the Vampire Slayer 183, 310–11

bufotenine 67, 154

Bugs Bunny 85

Buirmann, Franz 803–4

Bulgakov, Mikhail 292, 293, 389, 638

Bulgaria 197, 358, 382, 444, 702, 845

burial grounds 240–1, 651–3

Burn, Witch, Burn! (film) 255–6, 258, 267, 277, 289, 724

Burn, Witch, Burn! (Merritt) 167, 255, 277, 281

Burney Plaque 399

Burning Times see witchcraze

Burning Times, The 256

Burroughs, George 668, 782–3

Burroughs, William 262

Burton Boy (Thomas Darling) 791

Butters, Mary 811–12

Buzzard, Dr. 267, 716

Byzantium 303

Cabala 611–12, 707

Caballo marino 667

Cabot, Laurie 233

caduceus 92, 389, 556, 568

Caesarius of Arles, St 551

Cagliostro, Count Alessandro di 336, 585, 628, 716–20, 734, 737

Cagliostro, Seraphina 336, 718, 719

Caillagh Ny Gueshag 535–6

Cailleach 536–7

Cailleach Bhéara 208, 404, 537

Cailleach Bheur 537–8, 544

Cailleach Bolus 537, 538–9

Cailleach Corea Duibhne 537, 539

Cailleach Mor 539

Cailleach Oidhche 539

Cailleach Uragaig 539–40

Cain 557–8, 637

Cait Sith 446

cakes 509–10

cakes and ale, cakes and wine 510

cakes for the Queen of Heaven 510–11

Caledonia 536

calendar of revelry 185–223

Caligula, Emperor 390

Callisto 576

Canada 150, 272

Candeleria 189

Candle in the Dark, A (Ady) 138

candle magic 594–7

Candlemas 189, 197

candles 688

      cross-shaped 330, 854

      elder 160

      and image magic 609

Candomblé 122, 245, 328, 342, 347, 348, 636

Canon Episcopi 784

caprimulgids 43–4

Card Captor Sakura 298

Cardan, Jerome 725

cards 688–9

Caribbean 289, 342, 578; see also British West Indies; French Caribbean

Caribbean deities see Papa Bois

Carlin, the 534, 540, 543

Carmenta 328

Carnac 644

Carnival 245, 246, 578, 698

Carpzov, Benedict 805

Carter, Ida 766

Casanova 336, 716, 718

Casper the Friendly Ghost 233

Cassandra (Wolf) 397

castanets 302

Castle Halloween 678

Cat Anna (Black Annis) 535

Cat People 98, 256–7, 258, 263, 271

Çatal IIüyük 17–18, 26, 549, 698

Catherine de Medici 243, 379, 756–7, 798

Catherine the Great 717

Cathubodua 52

cats 44–50

      Graymalkin 338

      miller association 641

      Pyewacket 254

      see also fairy cats; witch-cat tales

cattle and fertility 26–7

Catwoman 233

caul 328, 354, 471

cauldrons 499, 689–91

Cautio Criminalis (Spee) 146, 804–5, 828

cave bears 42

Celestina, La (de Rojas) 225, 277–8

Celsus 737–8

Celtic calendar 540

Celtic deities see Badbh; Brigid; Cernunnos; Lugh; Maeve; Morgan le Fay

Celtic fairies see sidhe

Celtic festivals see Beltane; Imbolc; Lughnasa; Mabon; Samhain

Celtic hags see Beltane Carline; Cailleach; Carlin; Sheela na Gig

Celtic shamanism 652

Celtic tradition 184, 219, 433

      antlered women 550

      black-handled knives 685

      cat goddesses 47

      cat’s eye gazing 446

      cauldrons 689

      crow/raven trickster heroes 52

      fairies stealing midwives 486

      goats 68

      horned snakes 88

      mistletoe 169

      rowan dye 176

      royal frogs 66

      sacred groves 530

      sacred pigs 81

      willows in graveyards 183

      wolfhound breeding 100

      see also Druids

Celts 529, 676

cemeteries see burial grounds

Central Africa 247, 339

      oracle boards 614

Central America 190

      brooms 687

      devil masks 698

      jaguars 74

      magic mirrors 699

      moon–rabbit association 85

      slit-drums 303

      spirit-dogs 54

      transformation 96–7

      “vampiric” spirits 40

Central Asia 76

      Turkic tribes 357, 633

Central Europe 443, 726, 727, 753, 847

      coachmen 625

      Devil’s Grandmother 541

      ergotism 427

      fairy magicians 448

      frog traditions and fertility/as children’s souls 67

      juniper–witchcraft association 163

      lucky chimney sweeps 558

      lunar crayfish 519–20

      millers 641

      vampire–werewolf–witch links 40, 357

      Walpurgis Night 674

      see also Krampus

Cerberus 55, 184, 387

Ceremonial Magic see High Ceremonial/Ritual Magic

Ceres 200, 409, 410, 422–3, 506, 509

      identification with Demeter 83

Cernunhos 17, 218–19, 551, 558, 563, 578

Cerridwen 84, 378, 499, 532, 689

chalice 691

Chalice Well, Glastonbury 682

Challah 509

changelings 438, 444–6, 454–5

Chango 25, 351, 576, 696–7

Chang’o, Lady 520

Channel Islands 383

chanting 599

Chaos 404

Charlemagne, Emperor 100, 385, 795

Charles I of England 58, 747

Charles V, Emperor 729

Charles VI of France 622

Charles VII of France 739, 740, 741

Charles IX of France 139

Charles XI of Sweden 826

Charles the Bald 795

charm 328

charm bags 597–9

Charmed 311–12

charmer 328

charms and incantations 599–600

Charon 300, 626

Charos 626

Charovnik 328

Chartres cathedral 333

Charun 626

Chatwin, Bruce 76

Chelmsford witch trials 788–9

chemistry 590

chervioburgium 329

Chesnutt, Charles W. 468

Chi, Qi 329

chickens 50–1, 677

Chile 666

Chiloe Island 666–7

chimney sweeps 558–9

China 31, 108, 110, 158, 183, 184, 346, 688, 698, 713, 766, 847

      black cats 49

      bread-dough Buddhas 508

      creation myths 607

      erotic texts 304

      female shamans 20, 550

      fertility dolls 693

      five-bat design 40

      five elements 347

      fox spirits 63, 64–5

      frogs as yin 65

      image magic 609

      magpie bridge 77

      moon cakes 520–1

      moon rabbit 85

      Nu Kua 90, 607

      playing cards 621

      sand table oracles 614

      scorpion symbolism 87

      snakes and childbirth 88

      spider myths 94

Step of Yu 248

      winning number spells 113

Chinese alchemy 586, 588–9

Chinese astrology 593–4

Chiron 169, 750

Chocolat (Harris) 278

      chocolate 512

      chovihano/chovihani 329

Christ Principle 732

Christensen, Benjamin 261–2

Christian Cabala 611–12, 707

Christian II, Elector of Saxony 765

Christian demonology 553, 554

Christian II, Elector of Saxony 765

Christianity 97, 130, 141, 152, 213, 264, 279, 380, 438, 469, 612, 658, 664, 665, 673, 674, 730, 732, 759, 768, 775, 782, 821, 822

      animal masquerades banned 550–1

      and apples 154

      and astrology 592–3

      and banniks 649

      Basque conversion 778

      Celsus’ attack 737–8

      Commanding and Compelling 601

      control in Ireland 449

      cross 330, 854

      and crossroads 655–6

      dancing disapproved 236–7, 241

      devil conception 541, 566, 60 562, 563–4 570

      “double-faith” 491, 649

      dream-books discouraged 113

      and Druidry 332–3

      and elder trees 159–60

      Ember Days 333

      Etruscan culture suppressed 135

      fairy doctors condemned 447

      fallen angels 440, 561

      forced conversion 772

      Freemasonry opposed 336

      Glastonbury sacred 682

      Gnostic influence 30–1

      irrelevance to Wicca 326

      and Jesus as magician 737

      and Lake Pilato 676

      Magi 377

      and Manicheism 31, 32

      midwives as villains 486

      and music 301

      and ouija boards 616

      and Pagan deities 6, 47, 158, 368, 381, 383, 384, 390, 392, 398–9, 404, 409, 410, 413, 548–9, 551, 552, 561, 562–3, 568, 573, 637, 656, 680, 843

      and Pagan festivals 56, 188, 190, 206, 208, 212, 218, 220, 222, 388

      Pagan groves destroyed 663

      Pagan oracles closed 577

      Pagan shrines destroyed 375, 630

      pig denigration 82

      pork eating 81

      and Pow-Wow 121

      protective power 854

      and reproductive issues 835

      and ritual possession 617

      rue blessed 377

      runic texts destroyed 618

      Satan–black association 473

      Satan–crow association 52

      Satan–miller identification 641

      Satan-snake identification 90, 561

      and Satanism 720

      shamanism suppressed 345, 355, 625

      “simony” 767

      speculaas poppen banned 526

      and Spiritism 353

      theurgy suppressed 356

      and tree devotion 182

      violin disliked 305

      and warlocks 361

      and Wild Hunt 363

      witchcraft–Jew association 214–15

      and witchcraze 141, 278, 458, 466, 754, 779, 784–6

Christians 663, 767–7, 836

      and alchemy 590

      bathhouses suspicions 646, 647

      and Bereginy 435

      book burning 133, 137–8, 286

      Clow Cards protest 298

      Dark Shadows protest 312

      donkey worship allegations 57

      grimoire authorship 111, 128, 130

      identification of Pagans 348

      magical beliefs 738–9

      and Norse myth 369, 370, 542

      pentacle use 701

      Santa Claus rejected 580

      and Simon Magus 767–8

Christmas Eve 169, 392, 414, 843

Christmas Tree 180, 182, 222–3

Chronicle of Saint Patrick 332

Chronicles of England, Scotland and Ireland (Holinshed) 291

Chronicles of Narnia, The (Lewis) 279, 288

      ciaraulo/ciaraula/ciarauli 329, 466

      Cihuateteo 655

      cimaruta amulets 177–8

      Cbiderella (Disney) 259–60

      Cinderella 248

      cingulam 691–2

      Circe 81, 99, 100, 161, 166, 182, 247, 350, 368, 371, 378–9, 387, 389, 574, 613, 662, 691, 704, 749, 750

      and spinning 840

circle dance 238

Cistercians 402

Clair, René 262

CLAMP 297, 298, 299

Clarke, Elizabeth 792

Claudius, Emperor 134–5, 137

Cleary, Bridget 452–7, 807

Cleary, Michael 453, 454–7

Clement XII, Pope 719

Cleopatra of Egypt 124, 133, 137

club moss 183

Clutterbuck, Dorothy 661, 733, 770

coachmen 625–7

Cobham, Eleanor 787

coca 156–7

Coca-Cola Company 582

Code of Hammurabi 629

colcannon 516

Cole, Ann 779

Colley, Thomas 794

Columba, St 208

Columbia 40

Columella 351

comics 225–36

manga compared 297

Commanding and Compelling 584, 600–2, 619, 630, 738

Compendium Maleficarum (Guazzo) 141

Comtes se, Marie 745

cone of power 329

Confucians 589

Congolese deities see Simbi

Congolese tradition

      crosses 854

      paket kongo 348, 598–9

conjure 50, 176, 280, 329–30, 345

      see also African-American: conjure tales

conjure 329–30

conjure man, conjure woman 330

Conjure-Man Dies, The (Fisher) 279

Conjure Tales (Dutton) 469

Conjure Wife (Leiber) 7, 255, 271, 272, 277, 280–1

Conjure Woman, The (Chesnutt) 468

conjurer 330

Conqueror Worm, The 257–8, 266

Constantine, Emperor 122, 129–30, 737, 785

Constantius, Emperor 785 Coopers Wife is Missing, The (Hoff and Yeates) 454, 457

Copernicus, Nicholas 594

      copper 699

Corbet, Peter 100

      cord 691–2

Cordovero, Moses 610

Corelli, Marie 401

Corentin Cathedral 380

Corentin, Bishop of Quimper 380

Corey, Giles 668, 782

Corey, Martha 782

Corn Maidens 15

Corn Mother 202, 206, 207, 394, 395, 465, 417, 418, 419–26, 533, 701

      donkey identification 56

      hag incarnation 536, 537, 540

      and miller 639

      pig identification 83

corn mysteries 417–19

Cornelius, Thomas 250

cornucopias 695–6

corvids 51–2

Cosimo de Medici 730, 731

coven 330

Coyote 53, 98, 697

coyotes 52–4

Craft, The 258

Crearwy 378

creative arts 224–321

Creep, Shadow, Creep! (Merritt) 281, 380

Croatia 249, 773

Croesus, King of Lydia 374

Cromwell, Lady 790

cross 330, 854

Cross Quarter Days 189–90, 204

crossroads 386–7, 653–5

Crowley, Aleister 111, 125, 128, 265, 276, 292, 334, 337, 343, 347, 556, 611, 622, 705, 710, 720–3, 731, 733, 735, 745, 747, 749, 759, 760, 762, 768, 770

crows 51–2, 376

Crowther, Arnold 733

Crucible, The (Miller) 271, 281–2

crystal balls 683, 692–3

Cuba 351,405, 741

Cumaean Sibyl 136–7, 138, 412–13, 352, 675

cunning folk, cunning man, cunning woman 330, 347, 365

Cunningham, Scott 724

      curandero/curandera 330

Curie, Marie 585

curses 848–9

Curtin, Jeremiah 448

Cylon 760

Cyprian, St (San Cipriano) 122

Cyprus 45

Cyrus, King of the Medes and Persians 343

Czechoslovakia 272, 295; see also Bohemia; Moravia

d’Ascoli, Cecco 593

D’Aubray, Marie-Madeleine 798

Da Vinci Code, The (Brown) 631

Dactyls 635

Daedalus 646

Daemonologie (James I/VI) 142, 819

Dagda, the 218

Dahut 281, 379–80, 438

dakini 330, 365, 395, 435, 436

Dali, Salvador 622

damaru 302

Damballah 91

Dame Abundance 369

Dame Goden 363

Danaan 535

dance 236–51

Dance of the Seven Veils 238–40

dances of death 240–1

dangers of witchcraft 848–53

danse macabre 240, 241–2, 247

Dante 765

Daphne 662

Dark Shadows 308, 312–13

Darrell, John 791

Darwin, Charles 18, 284

Darwinism 714

      social 18

datura 157–8, 161–2

David, King 611

David-Neel, Alexandra 435, 710, 724–5

Davis, Wade 365

Day, Christian 668

DC Comics 230, 232–3, 235

de Beauharnais, Josephine 746

de Landa, Diego 135–6

de Leon, Moses 610

de Maldonado, Juan 141

de Mondeville, Henri 358

De Occulta Philosophia (Agrippa) 707, 708–9

De Poer, Arnald 809, 810

De Praestigiis Daemonum (Weyer) 146

de Ramée, Maria Louis 615

de Rojas, Fernando 277

de Torquemada Tomás 381

deasil, deosil 331, 362

Debaraz, Louis 799

declaiming 599

Dee, Arthur 727, 743

Dee, John 294, 334, 585, 699, 725–7, 742, 743

deevs 439

Defenders of the Earth (TV series) 230

Deives 435

del Rio, Martin 140–1, 142

Delrey/Kodansha 299

Demeter 83, 84, 91, 173, 174, 250, 383, 387, 409, 423, 509, 523, 540, 626, 629, 695, 696

      Corn Mother 420–22, 532

      hag aspect 540–1

Demon in the Tree, The 487–8

demonic possession 616, 617

Demonolatry (Remy) 145, 796

demonologist 331

Demonomania of Witches (Bodin) 139

“demons” 561

      in Jewish cosmology 486

Denmark 158–9, 242, 391, 482, 844

      Midsummer s Eve 213

      witchcraze 785

      see also Gundestrup Cauldron

Denslow, W W 296

DePaola, Tomie 354

Desbarolles, Adolphe 747

Deutsch, Niklaus Manuel 316

Device, Jennet 790–1

devil 559–65

      and crossroads 656

      ironworking association 634

      see also Satanic pact

Devil Doll, The 277

Devil with the Three Golden Hairs, The 471

Devil’s Grandmother, the 541–2

Dialogue Concerning Witches and Witchcraft, A (Gifford) 141

Diana 45, 98, 108, 118, 11920, 169, 177, 212, 223, 239, 355, 363, 368, 372, 380–2, 390, 404,413, 430, 473, 510, 524–5, 526, 541, 550, 583, 645, 659, 665, 784

      identification with Diana 372, 373, 374, 380–1

      Grove of Aricia 663

      see also Festival of Diana

Dianic Wicca 715–16

Dias de los Muertos (Mexican Days of the Dead) 190–2, 203, 433

      food 511–14

Dickens, Charles 286

dictionary of witchcraft 322–66

Dinocrates 375

Diocletian, Emperor 332, 589, 646

Diodorus Siculus 46

Dionysia 197

Dionysian festivals 383 see also Anthestheria; Dionysia; Rural Dionysia

Dionysian processionals 244, 245–6, 581, 582, 702

Dionysus (Bacchus) 25, 56–7, 68, 76, 242, 244, 304, 324, 342, 382–3, 387, 389, 397, 412, 473, 554, 563, 575, 576, 661, 695

      horned one 565–6

Dis 218–19

Discourse of the Subtle Practices of Devils by Witches and Sorcerers, A (Gifford) 141

Discourse on Sorcery (Boguet) 140

Discourse on the Damned Art of Witchcraft (Perkins) 144–5

Discoverie of Witchcraft, The (Scot) 66, 142, 145–6, 791

“disease demons” 604–5

Disney’s animated witches 258–60

Disquisitiones Magicarum (del Rio) 140–1

      distaffs 844–5

      divination 288, 331, 347, 602–4

      alder 151

      animal allies 36

      bean 505

      drum 302

      Halloween 203

      poultry 50

      spinning 839

      see also istinzal

djinn, jinn, jinni, jnun 124, 331, 436, 450, 486, 682

      cat disguise 48, 99

      and cemeteries 651

      dog disguise 55, 99

      fairies compared 432

      fear of iron 634

      hatred of salt 522

      imprisonment as flies 62

      springs 645

Doctor Strange, Master of the Mystic Arts 228

dogs 54–5, 386, 388

      see also Hell Hounds

dolls 608, 693

Domenico, San 371

Dominican Republic 359

Dominicans 143, 694, 709, 806

Dones d’Aigua 436

donkeys 56–7, 246, 641

Dr John 217

drabarni 331

drabengro 331

Dracula (Stoker) 40, 357, 627

drago 331

dragons 39, 92, 501, 561, 626

dream-books 113–14

dreams

      pig-sty incubation 84

      revealing animal allies 35–6

drude, druden 331

Druid books 133–4

Druids 169, 181, 182, 218, 331–3, 447, 449, 490, 507, 689, 759

drums and percussion instruments 301–3

dryads 436

Dryope 576

dualism 28–33, 439, 560, 562

Duffus, King of Scotland 608

Dumas, Alexander 717

dumb suppers 203

Dunbar, Mary 811

Duncan, Geillis (Gilly) 819–20

Duncan, Helen 794

Dunlop, Bessie 818

Dunne, John 455

Duran, Brother 650

Dürer, Albrecht 314, 315, 316, 845

Durga 245, 302, 854

dwarfs 635–6

dybbuk 333

Dye, Aunt Caroline 728

E Bukura e Dheut 436

Early, Biddy 448, 812

Earth Mother (Great Mother) 79, 88, 90, 151, 208, 368, 418, 419, 422, 541, 547, 632, 635, 681, 682

East Africa 40, 69–70, 393, 663

East Asia 42, 76, 628, 703, 725

      card invention 688

      five elements 701

      fox-witchcraft association 63

      frogs and fertility 65

East Asian shamanism 344

East of the Sun, West of the Moon 43

Easter 192–4, 213

Easter bunnies 85

Easter egg trees 182

Easter eggs 192–3

Easter witches 193–4, 321, 673, 684, 694, 695

Eastern Europe 184, 357, 443, 726, 753, 847

      fairy magicians 448

      millers 641

      geese watchdogs 489

      lunar crayfish 519–20

      vampire–werewolf–witch links 357

Eastwood, Clint 267

Echo 74

Ecuador 81

Edison, Thomas 714

Edward I of England 100

Edward VI of England 725

Edwards, Susanna 793

Egeria 663

Egypt 721, 735, 753

Egyptian Feast of the Dead 199

Egyptian Masonry 718

Elaphomyces granulatus (deer truffle) 525

      elder 158–60, 855

      elder candles 160

Elegba 348, 405, 465, 659, 854

Eleusinian Mysteries 83, 152, 174, 409, 421, 423, 506, 519, 540, 562

Elian, Jack Ffynnon (John Evans) 681

Eliezer of Worms 609

Elisha 737

Elizabeth I of England 243, 291, 294, 725, 726, 727, 787, 788

elm (Ulmus campestris) 160–1

elves 221, 436–7, 447, 580, 581

Ember Days 325, 333–4

embroidery 839

Emerald Tablet 587

Empusas 388

enchant 334

enchanter’s nightshade 161, 166, 379

enchantment 334

Encyclopedia Britannica 2

Endor, Witch of 324, 728–9

England 283, 375, 393, 723, 727

      Black Annis 535

      charm bags 598

      devil’s magpies 77

      elder tree protection 159

      “fairy” 431–2

      goodfellow euphemism 337

      live bat nailed to doorway 41

      Mother Goose 490

      Sheela na Gigs 546

      witchcraze 49, 141, 142, 676, 773, 781, 786–95, 815

      wolf hanging 100

      see also New Forest; Pendle Hill

Enoch 116, 334

Enochian Magic 334, 725, 726, 742, 743

ensorcell 334

ensorcellment 334

Ensouled Violin, The (Blavatsky) 306

envoûtement 334

ephedrine 149

ephemeredes 109

Epodes (Horace) 409

Epona 52, 55, 695

erberia 334

Erda see Herta

Erdrich, Louise 290, 291

Erebus 404

ergot 423, 426–9, 641

ergotamine 426

ergotism 426–7

Erinle 637, 680

Erinyes 55

Eros 404, 750

esbat 144, 194

Eshu-Elegbara/Exu 565–6, 637, 655, 656, 702

estrie 334–5

Ethiopia 37, 67, 324, 735

      “hyena men” 71

      see also Beta Israel

Etruria 665, 776

Etruscan deities see Ceres; Charon; Juno

Etruscan Library 134–5

Etruscans 107, 200, 380, 383, 401

Eugenius IV, Pope 785

Europa 26

Europe 33, 41, 42, 43, 46, 70, 76, 82, 92, 131, 136, 150, 158, 161–2, 176, 177, 180, 208, 218, 242, 243, 305, 306, 339, 364, 369, 386, 393, 473, 529, 592, 663, 761

      alchemy 590

      baboon denigration 38–9

      bat-dragon associations 39

      bathing 645–6

      Cain’s Hunt 557–8

      crow/raven-witchcraft association 52

      dance mania 241, 249

      Diana veneration 381

      donkey–devil association 56

      “dressing” wells 682

      forest refuges 181

      frogs and midwives 66

      grave cauldrons 690

      grimoires 109

      horned animal guise 549

      horned gods 548

      horse–shamanism association 627

      image magic 609

      invention of printing 108, 116

      ironworking-devil association 634

      kurgans 441

      May Day celebrations 187–8

      midwife oaths 836

      snake-spirit helpers 73

      stonemasons’ guilds 631

      table turning 613–14

      weasel–witchcraft association 59

      werewolf panic 102

      witch boards 615

      witchcraze see witchcraze

      wormwood reputation 501

      wolf-craze 100–1

European shamanism 466, 694

Eurydice 19, 389

Eurynome 90

Eve 7, 8, 32, 88, 89, 154, 172, 399

Evil Eye 353, 850–1

      budas 71–2

Evil Eye protection 850–1, 855

      bells 685, 851

      Fascinus 335

      fig hand 850–1

      horn amulets 27, 695

      mirrors 699, 851

      rue 177, 326

      St Lucy 326

Ewers, Hanns Heinz 168, 252, 276, 722, 735

Exeter witch trials 793

Exu 565–6

Eymericus, Nicholas 124, 136

Ezili Dantor 84, 407

Corn Mother 420, 423

Ezili Freda Dahomey 91, 198

Ezili Zandor 97

fairies 60, 218, 350, 364, 431–60, 819, 823, 844

      and the violin 306

      fear of iron 634

      trooping 201, 434, 445

      see also glamour, glamoury

fairy cats 446

fairy dart 446

fairy doctors 447–8, 453, 819

Fairy Faith 188, 440, 448–50, 453, 454, 456, 457, 739

fairy forts 450, 454

fairy magicians 450–1

fairy roads 451–2

fairy tales 7–8, 461–98

      bear references 43

      millers 639

      royal frogs 66

Fairy Tree, Domremy 740

fairy witch 452–7

Falk, Lee 229

False Dmitrii 77

familiars 35, 57–9

      see also imps

Fantasia 153, 672

fascinate 335

fascinatrix 335

Fascinus 335

Fasti (Ovid) 199, 200

Fastus 354

Fates 155, 260, 292, 379, 404, 425, 432, 433–4

      see also Moirae; Parcae

Fatima 213

fatit 433

Fauna 91, 201, 329, 561, 695

Faunalia 571

fauns 566

Faunus (Lupercus) 17, 25, 101, 209, 210, 548, 566–7, 570, 578, 583, 659, 687

Faust, Johannes 585, 610, 624, 707, 729–30

Faust (Goethe) 275, 283, 292

Faust literature 282–4

fava beans 514–15

favism 514

Fawcett Publications 229

Feast Day of St Agatha 197–8

Feast of All Saints 218

Feast of Fools 56, 246, 551

Feast of Ivan Kupalo 672

Feast of Ops 221

Feast of St Lucy (Santa Lucia) 195–6

Feast of St Nicholas 570–1

Feast of the Ass 56, 246, 551

Feast of the Epiphany 515

February Feasts 196–7, 363

feng shui 452, 593, 699

Fenian Cycle 332

Fenris Wolf 369, 432, 532

Fenta 550

Feralia 199, 401

Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain 824

Ferdinand I of Germany 802

Feronia 101, 383–4, 671

Ferrari de Mirimar, Maria 723

ferrets (polecats) 59–62

“fertility cult” 23–8, 33

Festa dei Serpari 371

Festival of Diana 515

Festival of Juno Sospita 199

Festival of Mania 200

Festival of San Domenico 523

Festival of St Trifon 197

Festivals of the Dead 199–201

fetch 335

Fian, John 820–1

Ficino, Marsilio 730–1

fig hand 850–1

Figueroa, Marta de la 837–8

Filimer, King of the Goths 338

film 251–75

Finland 153, 193, 599

      Easter postcards 321

      Kalevela 401, 642–3

      para (domestic spirits) 73

      transformation 96

      witchcraze 6, 773

Finno-Ugric shamanism 484

Finno-Ugric tradition 153, 358, 401, 599

fire-walking 237, 383

Fisher, Rudolph 279

Fitcher’s Bird, The 472

fjolkunnigir 335

Fjordin 385

Flade, Dietrich 800–1

flagõ 335

Flamel, Nicholas 585, 731

Flamel, Perenelle 731

Flavius Arcadias, Emperor 785

Flavius Josephus 124, 337

Flavius Stilicho 135, 137

Fleet, Thomas 490

Fleming, Andrew 258

Fleming, Victor 272

Fleming, William 275

flies 62–3

Flora 201,695

Floralia 201

flutes 151, 301, 303–5, 582

flying ointments 672, 685, 687, 693–5

Fon tradition 359

food and drink 499–527

forests 657–61, 662

      see also Leshii

Fornario, Netta 748

Förner, Friedrich 802

Fortuna 695

fortune cake 516

Fortune, Dion 128, 294, 337, 452, 578, 714, 732, 733, 734, 748, 749

fortune-teller’s crowdie 516–17

Fox Sisters 613

fox spirit tofu 515–16

foxes 63–5, 99

Fraguliati, Sibillia de 812

frame drums 303

France 123, 131, 192, 243, 249, 278, 289, 293, 433, 461, 707, 712, 723, 724, 739, 741, 746, 753

      absinthe 502

      April Fool’s Day 410

      bear caves 42

      cartomancy 621

      cat burning 49

      cave paintings 17, 79, 548, 697

      danse macabre 242

      ergotism 426

      Feast of the Ass 56

      fèves 515

      juniper disinfectant 163

      mandrake 166

      Mother Goose 489–90

      owl hooting 81

      planchettes 614

      Rye Wolf 429

      Sheela na Gigs 546

      St John’s wort 178

      Tante Arie 414

      werewolf panic 102, 104

      witch-cats 48

      witchcraze 39–40, 139, 140, 145, 278, 326–7, 459, 462, 676–7, 773, 774, 795–99

      wolf extermination 100

      see also Puy de Dôme

Francesco, Matteuccia di 812–13

Francis, Elizabeth 788–9

Frankenstein (Shelley) 261, 609

Franklin, William 110

Franks 329, 381

Frau Trude (Grimm) 472–4

Frazer, James 169, 188, 381, 753

Frederick II, Emperor 765

Freemasonry 213, 335–6, 339, 348, 359, 628, 631–2, 695, 719, 749

      see also Egyptian Masonry

French Caribbean

      loups-garoux 104

      magic lamps 595

French colonial North America 744

French postmodernism 9–10

Freud, Sigmund 732

Freya 45, 47, 68, 84, 98, 169, 195, 221, 223, 391, 352, 357, 362, 363, 367, 368, 369, 370, 371, 384–5, 405, 406, 503, 607, 618, 626, 673, 674, 784, 839

Freyr 181, 223, 369, 371, 384, 391, 437, 581, 635

Frigg 169, 219, 223

Frigga 367, 385–6, 392, 405, 473, 526, 547, 839

      and spinning 840

Frizzly Rooster, The 50

Frog Prince, The 470

frogmouths 43–4

frogs 65–7

fruitful earth 23–8

Fuld, William 615

Funk and Wagnall’s Standard Dictionary of Folklore, Mythology and Legend 2, 8

Gabriel, Archangel 854

Gaia 68, 404

Gaiman, Neil 227, 230, 231

Gairdner, Grizel 732

Galanthis 62

Galeen, Henrik 253

Galileo Galilei 594

Gamache, Henri 126

Gandhi, Mohandas 714

Ganna 710

garaboncias 336

Garden of Eden 89, 154, 181, 400, 503

Gardner, Alan 732

Gardner, Gerald 109, 111, 112, 113, 118, 194, 288, 361, 660–1, 678, 705, 714, 715, 720, 721,723, 732–4, 741, 753, 759, 764, 768, 770, 818

Garibaldi 712

Garnier, Gilles 104–5

Gasparutto, Paolo 813

Gast, Johann 729

Gaufridi, Louis 797

Gaule, John 792

Gaulish deities see Arduinna; Teutates

Gaulish tradition 208, 218, 526, 550, 604

Gauric, Luc 756, 757

Gebelin, Antoine Court de 621

Gelasius, Pope 737

Gellért Hill 674

Gent, P. F. 283

Geoffrey of Monmouth 403, 739, 753

George II 793

George, St 92, 257, 637

Gerard, John 164

German-American tradition 121, 222, 582, 627

German–Jewish tradition 509

Germanic spirits see Rübezahl; Nixie; White Women

Germanic calendar 206–7, 221

Germanic deities see Herta; Hulda; Ostara; Perchta; Weird Sisters

Germanic shamanism 652

Germanic tradition 94, 159, 219, 638

      alraune 166–7, 252, 276, 323

      braid/braided loaf offerings 508–9

      henbane 162

      Eve of St Lucy’s 195

      goat-tallow spell 68

      lebkuchen 526

      mistletoe 169

      Mother’s Night 222

      snake guardian Unke 90

      wagon processions 626

      Wild Hunt 363

      wolf–witch association 101

Germany 171, 192, 284, 293, 385, 710, 723, 729, 730, 735, 758, 765

      “corpse washerwoman” 833

      cartomancy 621

      chromolithography 320

      elder “palms” 160

      ergot 427, 429

      folk magic 121, 123, 327

      fairy tales 463

      Freya revival 47

      Geisterwegen 452

      hex signs 619

      hexe (nightjars) 44

      hexensessel 152

      Hulda processionals 392

      kraut 341

      krauthexen 341

      lucky chimney sweeps 558

      Maitrank (May Wine) 520

      pentagram talismans 700

      Perchtennacht 245

      pig-sty dream incubation 84

      Rye Wolf 429

      Sixth and Seventh Books of Moses 130–1

      toad-witchcraft association 66

      witch/witchcraft synonyms 323, 339, 346, 357

witch craze 11, 49, 139, 140, 141, 143, 146, 316, 350, 474, 625, 753, 754, 773, 774, 775, 800–5, 828, 836–7,

      Yule celebrations 223

      see also Brocken; Horselberg; Walpurgis

Ghana 346, 693

giants 536, 542–3

Gifford, George 141

Gilgamesh 397, 506

Gilles de Rais 740

Gimbutas, Marija 17, 382, 425, 696

ginseng 175

Ginzburg, Carlo 754

Ginzburg, Louis 168

Giselle 444

Glamis, Lady 818

glamour, glamoury 336, 349

Glapion, Louis Christophe Dominic Duminy de 744–5

Glastonbury 644, 682

Glendower, Owen 764

Glover, Mrs 780

Gnosticism 9, 30, 89, 738

      Simonian 767, 768

goat dance 242–3

Goat Foot God, The (Fortune) 452, 578

goat god 567

goats 67–8, 210, 323, 508, 556, 561, 626

      devil association 44, 68, 242, 548–9, 562

goddesses and gods 367–416

Goebbels, Josef 736

goes/goetes 336–7

Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von 283, 284, 292, 293, 716

goetia, goeteia 337

goetic magic 337

Gogol, Nikolai 266, 672

Golden Ass, The (Lucius Apuleius) 57, 61, 80, 285, 355, 665, 693

Golden Bough, The (Frazer) 169, 188, 381, 753

Golden Dawn 114, 122, 337, 714, 720, 721, 731, 732, 747, 748, 749

Golden Fleece 750

Göldi, Anna 827

Golem 225, 609–10

Golem, The 260–1

Good Friday Eve 669

good people 337

Good, Dorcas 783

Good, Sarah 782, 783

Gooderidge, Alice 791

goodfellow 337

Goodwin witch trials 779–80

Goofer Dust 685

Goophered Grapevine, The (Chesnutt) 468, 469

Goose, Elizabeth Foster 490

Gorgons 387

Gospel of John 738

Gospel of Mark 239, 390

Gospel of Matthew 239, 360, 738

Goths 338

Gowdie, Isobel 86, 217, 460, 822–3

Goya 68, 314, 317–18, 323, 552

      Black Paintings 318

      Caprices 317–18

      Witchcraft Paintings 318

      grabancijas 336

Gradlon, King of Cornwall 379, 380

Grahame, Richard 821

Grand Grimoire 122–3, 124, 127–8, 131

Grand Zombi 247, 745

Grandier, Urbain 797–80

Graves, Robert 519, 577

graveyard dirt 653

Gray Wolf’s Hant, The (Chesnutt) 468–9

Great Albert, The 123, 710

Great Mother see Earth Mother

Great Rite 186, 218, 337–8, 691

Greece 165, 843

      goat dance 242

      love spell 690

      red Easter eggs 193

Greek mythology 19, 61, 90, 230, 284, 300, 304, 463, 574, 629, 664, 693, 696,

Green Man 382, 472

Greenland 359, 385

Greensmith, Rebecca 779

Gregory IX, Pope 49, 806

Gregory of Tours 381

Gregory the Great, Pope 563

Grendel 535, 542

Grenier, Jean 105–6

Greyerz, Peter von 827

Grid 542

Grien, Hans Baldung 314, 316

Grierson, Isobel 49

Griffin, Maurice 448

Griggs, William 782

Grimalkin 338

Grimassi, Raven 233

Grimm Brothers 163–4, 461–2, 463, 469–81

Grimm, Jacob 47, 392, 463, 469, 470, 619

Grimm, Wilhelm 469, 470, 474

Grimoire of Honorius the Great, The 123

grimoires 109, 111, 114–32, 283, 600

      missing 136

Gringonneur, Jacquemin 622

gris-gris 338, 598

grotesque 662

grottoes 661–2

Grove of Aricia 663

groves 530, 662–5

Guatemala witchcraze 826, 837–8

Guazzo, Francesco Maria 141

Guenolé, St 380

Gui, Bernardo 142, 459

Guibourg, Abbé 131

Gula Bau 55

Gulveig see Angerboda

Gundestrup Cauldron 558, 579, 690

Gustavus III of Sweden 827

Gutenberg, Johann 108

Gwenddolau, King 751

Gwenddydd 752

Gwion 378

Gwyn ap Knudd 443

Gypsies 11, 287, 585, 621

Gyre Carlin 404, 543

Habetrot 840

Hades (deity) 42, 91, 409, 420–1, 422, 626

Hades (place) 19, 55, 162, 184, 200, 379, 382, 387, 389, 421, 626

haegtessa 338

hag 338

Hag Rune 543–4

Hag Stone 544

hags 84, 528–47

Hair in the Milk, The 487

Haiti 84, 264

      bokor/bòkò 327

      John the Baptist 213

      loups-garoux 104, 695

      Red Sects 97

      wanga 360

      zombi 365–6

Haitian Revolution 360

Haitian Voodoo 359, 637, 763

Hale, John 783

      haljoruna 338

      hall of fame 705–70

Halloween 9, 12, 50, 192, 199, 201–4, 219, 222, 308, 309, 362,419, 654, 676, 820

      bean divination recipes 505

      food and drink 516–17

      iconography 39, 40, 44, 66, 94, 242, 499, 417

      masks 698

      in Salem 668–9

      noise makers 303

      postcards 73, 203, 320–1, 417, 678

      pumpkins 521

      see also Castle Halloween

Halloween trees 204

Halloween Tarot, The (West) 73

Haltridge family 811

hamadryads 436

hamadryas baboons 37–8

Hamlet (Shakespeare) 162, 178

Hamnett, Nina 723

Hannahanna 396

Hannibal of Carthage 137, 397–8

Hannya 567, 575

Hansel and Gretel 8, 10, 300, 309, 456, 474–7, 479, 500, 521, 657, 775

Hanussen, Erik Jan 276, 734–6

Harlem Renaissance 279, 763

Harlequin/Herlichinus 363

Harris Comics 233

Harris, Frieda 622

Harris, Joanne 278

Harry Potter books (Rowling) 3, 8, 14, 94, 216, 254, 288, 285–7, 330, 444, 464, 588, 704

Harry Potter films 261

Harvey Comics 233

Harvey, William 58–9

Harz Mountains 103

Hathor 26, 45, 174, 245, 301, 303, 304, 646, 663, 698, 699

      horned aspect 567

Haumea 396

Hausmannin, Walpurga 837

Hawaii 362, 852

      huna 340

Kahuna 341

      kaula 341

Hawaiian deities see Kapo

Häxan {The Witch) 261–2

Hayers, Sidney 255–6

Haywood, James 794

Head, Richard 767

healing 7, 604–6; see also ciaraulo/ciaraula/ciarauli

Hearn, Lafcadio 360, 742

heathen 338

Hecate, Hekate 45, 50, 54–5, 62, 66, 83, 84, 91, 92, 171, 182, 212, 244, 246, 247, 350, 356, 368, 373, 383, 386–8, 397, 421, 458, 510, 532, 607, 626, 655, 687, 749, 750, 751, 834

      Macbeth 263, 264, 292, 386

Hecate Supper 388, 518–19

Hecate Night 204, 386, 509

hechiceria 338

hechicero/hechicera 338–9

hedge-rider 339

hedges 339, 471, 529–30, 657, 681

Heela 367m

heid 339

Heid see Angerboda

Heimdall 544

heka 339

Hekataion 698

Heket 66, 569, 607, 834

Hel see Hella

Helen of Troy 173–4, 284, 399

Helen, St (Santa Elena) 122, 460

Helios the Sun 421, 750, 751

Hell 240, 363, 392, 471, 559, 570, 626, 675

Hell Hounds 54, 388

Hella (Hel) 19, 54, 55, 369, 388–9, 392, 406, 533, 542, 547, 676

Hellblazer (comic book series) 228–9

Hellblazer (film) 228

Hemera 404

hemerologies 109–10

henbane 161–2, 506, 694

henna 702

Henri II of France 756, 757

Henry FI Part I (Shakespeare) 739

Henry VIII of England 725, 787

Hephaestus 198, 248, 563, 634, 635, 636, 696

Hera 27, 61–2, 68, 74, 91, 182, 223, 245, 503, 532, 636, 693, 750

herbalism 606–7, 724

      reproductive 836

herberia 339

Hercules 61, 750

Herman, Prince 763

Hermes 55, 68, 91, 92, 174, 187, 329, 350, 379, 389–90, 406, 414, 415, 421, 563, 576, 581, 655, 673, 702, 737

      horned aspect 568–9

Hermes Trismegistus 127, 389, 415, 587, 707, 730, 736–7

Hermetic Society 744

Hermetica, The 415, 730, 736

Hermeticism 612, 707, 736

Herne the Hunter 17, 363, 568, 687

Herne’s Oak 568

Herod Antipas 238–9, 240, 390

Herod the Great 390

Herodias 238, 239, 240, 363, 372–3, 390–1, 784; see also Arardia

Herodotus 46, 102, 336, 343

Herta 223, 245, 362, 363, 367, 368, 384, 391, 392, 406, 489

      Rügen Island grove 663–4

Hesiod 387

Hestia 56

hex signs 619–20

hexagram 26

hexe 339, 529, 530, 676, 850

hexenmeister 339

hexerei 339

hexes 339, 340, 669, 851

High Ceremonial/Ritual Magic 116–17, 285, 336, 346, 353, 588, 600, 611, 685, 703, 714, 717, 733, 736, 738

High John the Conqueror 175, 176

Hildegard of Bingen 151

Hill, Elizabeth 780–1

Himalayan tradition 302, 435, 686, 724

Himalayas 161, 663, 714, 724–5

Hinduism 49, 435, 560, 579, 622

      vedic astrology 593

Hippocrates 165, 594

Hiram Abiff 631

Hiram of Tyre 632

Hirsig, Leah 722

His Dark Materials (Pullman) 20, 287–8

Hispala 776–7

Hitler, Adolf 276, 734, 735–6

Hittites 395–6, 397

Hobbit, The (Tolkien) 290

Hoffman, Albert 427

Hohmann, Johann George 121

Hokusai 297

Holbein, Hans the Younger 241

Hole, Christina 85

Holinshed, Raphael 291

Holland 289, 385, 392, 521, 765

      Black Peter 581

      speculaas poppen 526

      witchcraze 138, 139

Holler 392–3, 582

Holy Communion 424

Holy Grail 403, 682, 691, 732

Homer 80, 99, 102, 350, 378–9, 613, 636, 729, 750

Honir 371

Honorius III, Pope 123

Honorius, Emperor 135

Hoodoo, Hoodoo Doctor, Hoodoo man, Hoodoo woman 120, 121, 176, 280, 329, 345, 339–40, 347, 364

      bat charm 41

      British 330

      candle magic 595

      condition oils 596

      frizzled poultry protection 50

      Goofer Dust 685

      Hot Mama 163

      “live things in the body” 605

      “Seven Sisters” 766; see also Dye, Aunt Caroline; Yah-Yah, Dr

Hopi Snake Dancers 92

Hopkins, Matthew 254, 257, 258, 791, 792–3

Horace 108, 409

Horne, Fiona 233

horned one 222, 242, 548–83

Horniman, Anne 748

horns 26–7, 549–50, 695–6

Horselberg 674–5

horses 627

Horus 87, 394, 411

Houdini, Harry 336

hover 340

Howlin’ Wolf 102

Hulda (Mother Holle) 94, 158–9, 223, 362, 363, 367, 368, 392–3, 406, 437, 478, 563, 582, 674, 682, 784, 839,

      and spinning 840

Huluppu Tree, The 400

human sacrifice 629, 689

huna 340

Hungary 658, 715, 839

      boszorkànyhab 504–5

      crow/raven trickster heroes 52

      drum divination 302

      fairy illnesses 447

      fairy spider webs 94

      fairy tales 461, 462

      garaboncias 336

      Krampus 570

      magical millers 642

      runic writings 618

      St Lucy’s Day 196

      Tündér 443

      witch-cats 48

      witch synonyms 327

      witchcraze 48, 78, 217, 432, 443, 459, 460, 462–3, 605, 774; see also; Gellért Hill; táltos

Huns 338, 356

Hurston, Zora Neale 15

Huysmans, Joris-Karl 327

Hyatt, Harry Middleton 627, 716, 728

hyenas 68–72

Hygeia 90, 329

hyoscyamine 158

Hyrrokkin 542, 544

I Married a Witch 262–3, 310

Ibis the Invincible 229

Iceland 352, 359, 363, 384, 638

      asatru 324

      witchcraze 6, 805–6

      wolf hunting 100

      see also Museum of Icelandic Sorcery and Witchcraft; Mount Hekla

I-Ching 288, 603

Idunn 503

Iliad 313, 693

Illes, Eugen 253

      image magic 264, 289, 334, 607–10

Imbolc 177, 188, 189, 197, 204–5, 211, 217, 535, 536, 538

imps 73

Inanna-Ishtar 68, 239–40, 400, 465, 510, 511, 541, 550, 722

Inari 63, 515, 636

incantation 340

Incas 628, 833, 844

India 30, 110, 152, 158, 288, 347, 382, 395, 663, 712, 713, 714, 724, 759

      cremation dances 240

      fox spirits 63

      sacred cows 27

      jackals 53

      magic lamps 595

      playing cards 621

      transformation 96

      witch murders 5

Indian deities see Durga; Kali; Pashupat; Shiva

Indian spirits see dakini; Yakshas

Indonesia 693, 733

Ingram, Rex 265, 266

Innocent III, Pope 806

Innocent iy Pope 828

Innocent VI, Pope 124

Innocent VIII, Pope 47, 143, 784, 785

Inquisition 124, 139, 142, 214, 317, 343, 351, 402, 459, 462, 549, 551, 563, 707–8, 755, 806–7

      Basque region 552, 677

      and Benandanti 325

      Commanding and Compelling 602

      destruction of codices 135–6

      France 796, 797

      and Freemasonry 719

      Germany 143, 800

      and henbane possession 162

      Italy 112, 812, 813

      and Knights Templars 555

      and Pagan deities 368, 369, 372, 381,

Spanish colonies 135

      and “spirit worship” 620

      torture 828

      and witches 785

      Inquisitors Manual, The (Gui) 142, 459

Io 26, 74

Ipfel, Annie Winkelz 49

Iranian tradition 342, 553

      deva/dev 560

      dualism 439

      Peri 439

      Zoroastrianism 30

Iraq 164, 738

Ireland 177, 187, 190, 192, 208, 337, 402, 558, 751

      alder divination 151

      Beltane cat killing 189

      Cailleach 536, 537

      changeling lore 445

      colcannon 516

      Druidry 332–3

      fairy blast 447

      fairy darts 446

      fairy doctors 447

      Fairy Faith 449–50

      fairy forts 450

      fairy tales 461

      Leanhaun-shee 422

      Halloween 201–2

      image magic 609

      Imbolc Eve traditions 205

      jack o’lanterns 522

      lambswool drink 518

      May Day rabbit killing 86

      pishoguery 349

      psychopomps 325

      sacred cows 27

      Samhain fairies 218

      Sheela na Gigs 546

      sweathouses 647

      witchcraze 452, 773, 807–12, 815

Irish deities see Ana; Dagda; Morrigan

Irish fairies see sidhe

Irish hags see Cailleach

      Bhéara; Cailleach Bolus;

      Cailleach Corea Duibhne

Irenaeus of Lyons 767

Irodeasa 391

iron 419, 632, 682; see also metalworkers

Iron Age 632

Iron Woman 423–4

Iron Wood (Iarnvid) 370, 371, 388, 533, 533, 660

Ishtar 67

Isis (Au Set) 25, 26, 54, 84, 87, 91, 174, 182, 198, 245, 285, 301, 393–4, 400, 411, 415, 532, 550, 631, 640, 652, 679, 701

      Corn Mother 420, 424

Isis Unveiled (Blavatsky) 306, 713–14

Islam 30, 164, 213, 236, 327, 346, 555–6, 664

      astrology 593

Island Magee Witch Trial 811

Isle of Man 74, 86, 440, 442, 449, 723, 734, 770

      Caillagh Ny Gueshag 535–6

istinzal 340

Istria 341

Italian deities see Angitia; Diana; Juno Fauna; Herodias; Mana; Sibillia

Italian Jews 373

Italian Renaissance 316

Italian spirits see Carmenta; Faunus; Feronia; Sylvanus

Italian witchcraft see strega; stregharia

Italy 73, 117, 184, 192, 243, 305, 306, 336, 380, 409, 707, 719, 756, 759, 765

      alder 151

      April Fool’s Day 410

      Artemis masks 698

      artificial grottoes 661–2

      Bacchanalia persecution 776–7

      cartomancy 621

      domestic cats 46

      fairy tales 461, 480

      Fata Morgana 403, 432

      fava beans 514

      fertility dolls 693

      Festa dei Serpari 371

      festivals of the dead 190

      fig hand amulet 850

      folk magic 698

      frog/toad-witchcraft association 66

      gialla (horror-thriller films) 266

      horn amulets 27, 695

      mandrake harvesting 168

      May Eve bonfires 151

      Pan cult 577

      “pig” vulva nickname 83

      pig-sty dream incubation 84

      playing cards 688

      rue 177–8

      “St Agatha’s Breasts” 198

      strega liquore 524–5

      tarentella 248, 249

      tarot 325

      treguenda 250, 251

      winning number spells 113

      witch synonyms 344

      witchcraze 217, 369, 432, 459, 462–3, 773, 812–13

      witch’s supper 527

      see also Befana la Strega; Benandanti; Benevento; Etruscans; Monte della Sibilla

Ivan III, Tsar 817

Ivan Kupalo 205–6

Ivan of Shiganska 104

Ivan the Terrible 77, 698, 816, 817

Ivory Coast 40

Ix Chel 85

      and spinning 840–1

Ix Tub Tun 91

lynx (nymph) 74

iynx (wryneck) 74, 340

Izuna Rite 65

Jacaume of Bayonne, Lady 39–40

jack o’lanterns 521–2

jackals 53

Jackson, Peter 290

Jacob 164–5, 248

jaguars 74–5

James I of England (VI of Scotland) 67, 142, 145–6, 291, 294, 325, 727, 791, 818, 819, 820, 821

James III of Scotland 608

James V of Scotland 818

James the Greater, St 359, 637

Japan 168, 180, 270, 346, 703, 706

      black cats 49

      cat spirits 99

      crow/raven trickster heroes 52

      doll oracles 693

      female shamans 344

      fox spirit tofu 515–16

      fox spirits 63–4, 99

      fox-owning 63

      horns 567

      sacred genital imagery 26

      snake spirits 92–3

      transformation 98–9, 498

      witch ostracism 64

      witch-cats 48–9

      see also manga and anime; Onmyo-Do; Onmyoji

Japanese spirits see Hannya; Oni; shikigami, shikijin;

Japan deities see Amaterasu; Yama-Oba, Yama-Uba

Jarcke, Karl-Ernst 754

Jason of the Argonauts 248, 371, 465, 750–1

Java 96, 98

Jeanne des Anges, Sister 797, 798

jedza 340

Jerusalem Temple (Temple of Solomon) 90, 181, 335, 553, 622, 630, 631, 685, 846

Jesus Christ 31, 56, 137, 152, 160, 337, 394, 424, 593, 602, 675, 700, 713, 737–9

Jewish deities see Asherah; Lilith

Jewish demonology 553, 601

Jewish fairy tales 400, 461, 486–8

Jewish Gnosticism 30

Jewish horned ones see Asmodeus; Azazel

Jewish tradition 127

      alchemy 590

      ambivalence towards magic 600–1

      astrology 593

      black cats 49

      Book ofRaziel 107

      Cakes for the Queen of Heaven 509, 511

      Challah 509

      crow/raven trickster heroes 52

      “disheveled hair” 14

      dybbuk 333

      estrie 334–5

      fallen angels 560–1

      goats 68

      in grimoires 128, 129, 130

      Ha-Satan 560

      music 301

      mandrake 168

      Names of Power 324, 346

      root abortifacient 176

      transformation 96

      Yom Kippur 554

      see also Golem; Kabalah

Jews 331, 347, 351, 612, 718, 734, 737, 772, 773–4

      Christian defamation 214–15

      donkey worship allegations 57

      extermination 11

      grimoire attacks 142, 144

      House of Herod 239

      Italian 373

      love of violins 305

      magical skills 56, 738

      Naliboki Forest communities 658

      pork taboo 81

      Provençal 754–5

      Satan association 564

      Se’irim sacrifice 583

      Spanish Inquisition 824, 825

      see also Beta Israel

jězě 340

Jezebel 239

Jezibaba 394

Jimson-weed 158

jinx 340

Joan of Arc 13, 166, 315, 460, 739–41, 814

John Barleycorn 21, 207

John Chrysostom, St 375, 398–9

John the Baptist 169, 205–6, 213, 239, 390, 394, 738, 767

John XXII, Pope 785, 808, 809

John, Dr 741–2

Johnson, Robert 656

Jonah 21

Jones, Dorothy 724

Jones, Margaret 779, 838

Jordanes 338

Jorinda and Joringel 474, 477

Jormungard 369

Joseph of Arimathea 682, 691

Jourdemayne, Margery 787

Judaism 152, 182, 239, 351

      dancing banned 236, 237

Judas 160

Judea 30, 160, 165–6, 181, 240, 337, 390

juju 340–1

juju man, juju woman 341

Julia, Witch of Brandon 758

Julian, Emperor 356

Julianus the Chaldean 356

Julius Caesar 133, 134, 332, 710

Jung, Carl 3, 6, 90, 603, 732

Jungle Book, The (Kipling) 288

juniper 162–4, 379

Juniper Tree, The 163–4

Junius, Johannes 802–3

Juno 91, 189, 209, 210, 489, 537, 561

Juno Caprotina 569

Juno Februa 197, 210

Juno Lucina 195

Juno Sospita 199

Justin Martyr 737, 767

Justinian, Emperor 356, 394, 399, 590

Justinianus, Emperor 785

Kabalah 121, 124, 128, 129, 130, 182, 339, 610–12, 707, 710, 713, 717, 730, 731, 732, 745, 746, 747, 748, 755

Kabbalah Unveiled (von Rosenroth) 749

Kadesh 91

Kahuna 341

Kalevala 401, 642–3

Kali 17, 52, 53, 91, 240, 330, 367, 394–5, 411, 435, 854

Kamrusepas 395–6

Kandinsky, Vasili 714

Kaplicky, Vaclav 271, 295

Kapo 396–7, 854

Kardec, Allan 353

kaula 341

Kebecht 91

Kellas cats 446

Kelley, Edward 334, 585, 726–7, 742–4

Kellner, Karl 347

Kelly, Gerald 721

Kelly, Mary B. 839, 845

Kelly, Rose 292, 721–2, 723

Kemp, Ursula 789

Kennard Novelty Company 615

Kenya 76, 775

Kepler, Johannes 594

Kertesz, Mihaly 253

Keshalyi 437, 451

      and spinning 841

Key of Solomon 112, 124, 129, 131, 755

Khnum 569–70, 607

Khonsu 46

Kiki’s Delivery Service 263

Kilian, St 381

Kilkenny witch trials 808–11

Kimbanda, Quimbanda 341

King Features 229

King of Demons 437

King, Graham 678

Kingsford, Anna 714, 744, 749

Kipling, Rudyard 288, 733

Kirill of Turov, St 464

Knights of St John 717

Knights Templars 57, 336, 555–6, 621, 630, 631

knot spells 691

Ko Hong 248

kodia 341, 365

Kogi people 40

Kokopelli 304

koldun/koldun’ia/kolduny 341

Koran 600

Korea 621, 688

Korean shamanism 345

Korrigans (Corrigans) 438, 445

Koschei the Deathless 377, 466, 496

Kramer, Heinrich 142, 143–4

Krampus 73, 156, 222, 473, 549, 558, 559, 563, 570–1, 626, 687

kraut 341

krauthexen 341

kresniks 341, 360, 430

Krishna 304

Krishnamurti 714

Krumbachova, Ester 271

Kummer, Hans 37

Kupala 205, 206

Kurosawa, Akira 94, 270

Kwan Yin 394, 854

Kybele 18, 45, 76, 137, 244, 245, 246, 274, 301, 302, 303, 364, 368, 374, 383, 387, 397–9, 541, 553–4, 576, 607, 632, 635, 659

Kyteler, Alice 807, 808–9, 810

la Cordière, Jehenne de Brigue 796, 797

La Hendaye Beach 681, 778

La Muse Historique (Loret) 489

la Valle, Gracia 824

la Voladora 667

la volta 243

Labarthe, Angèle de 796

labrys 696–7

Lady Macbeth of the Mtsensk District (Ljeskov) 269

Lady of the Beasts (Johnson) 17

Lady Sheba’s Book of Shadows 112–13

Laguna, Andrés de 694

Laka 396

Lakota 101

lambswool (Halloween drink) 518

Lamech 557

Lamia 90, 172, 355

lamia/lamiae 341

lamina 341

Lamium album 172

Lammas 206, 209

Lancelot of the Lake 403

Lancre, Pierre de 141, 144, 194, 554, 681, 778–9

Lanfray, Jean 502

Lang, Andrew 11,411

Langley, Noel 273

language 13

Lapland 153

larva 342

larvatus 342

Lasicki, Jan 92

Laski, Prince Albert 726

Late Memorable Providences Relating to Witchcraft and Possessions (Mather) 144

Latin America 330, 411, 595, 598

      crossroads 654

      curanderos 179

      European-styled witchcraft 74

      mala mujer 343

Latvia 77, 410, 438, 649, 659, 719

Lauma 438

Laveau, Marie 213, 247, 414, 679, 741, 744–5

Lavette, Bettye 308

le Poer, John 808

Leah 27, 165

Leanhaun-shee 442

LeBorg, Reginald 271

Ledrede, Richard de 808–9, 810

Leek, Sybil 52, 661, 745–6

Leiber, Fritz 7, 255, 271, 271, 277, 280

Leland, Charles Godfrey 117–18, 119, 250, 251, 372, 373, 383, 666, 733, 753, 768

Lemegeton 124, 125, 131, 709

Leminkainen 643

Lemures 401

Lemuria 199–200

Lenormand, Marie 746

Leo X, Pope 813

leopards 76, 246, 397

leprechauns 441

Leshii 523, 544, 571–3, 659

Leshovhika 544–5

Leto 373

Levi, Eliphas 556, 611, 622, 684, 701, 710, 722, 746–50, 761

Levin, Ira 268

Lewis, C. S. 279, 288

Lewis, Matthew 293

Lewton, Val 257

ley lines 451–2

Liber Penitentialis 551

library of the lost 132–8

Libros Carminum 108

Libya 45, 90, 840

Life of Merlin (Geoffrey of Monmouth) 403

Life of St Berach 333

Lilith 45, 53, 55, 80, 88, 90, 91, 233, 234, 239, 247, 284, 334, 354, 355, 373, 390. 395, 399–401, 437, 461, 487–8, 489, 532, 553, 561, 640, 682

Lilly, William 110, 735, 747

Lilyi 437

literature 275–97

Litha 206–7, 217–18

Lithuania 73, 410, 435, 438

Little Albert, The (Book of Secrets) 126

Little Candlemas 197

Little Mermaid, The (Andersen) 260, 482–3

Little Mermaid, The (Disney) 260, 482

Little Red Riding Hood 101

‘live things” 605

Lives of the Mayfair Witches (Rice) 289–90

Livy 776

Ljeskov, N. S. 269

Lieu 80

Lieu Llaw Gyffes 208

Lloyd, Temperance 793

Logolico 437

Loewe, Judah 260, 261

Loher, Hermann 803, 804

Loki 369, 370, 388, 406–7, 542, 545, 547

Long, Carolyn Morris 744–5

Lonicer, Adam 429

Lonnrot, Elias 642–3

lookman, lukuman 342

looms 845–6

Lopez, Maria Dolores 824

Lord of the Rings books (Tolkien) 94, 290, 437, 699, 702

Lord of the Rings films 290

Lorenzo the Magnificent 731

Lorre, Peter 735

Lost Shadow, The

Lottery, The (Jackson) 534

Loudon Witch Trials 797–8

Louhi 401, 643

Louis XIII of France 609, 707

Louis XIV of France 49, 326, 489, 798, 799

loups-garoux 104, 407, 695

Lourdes 645

Love Medicine (Erdrich) 290–1

Loveday, Betty May 723

‘low magic” 588, 717

Löwe ben Bezalel, Judah 610

Loyer, Pierre de 554

LSD 427

Lucian of Samosata 387

Lucifer 52, 119, 272, 372, 560–1

Lucifero 348

Lucifuge Rofocale 122–3

Lucius III, Pope 806

Lucius Apuleius 57, 61, 80, 95, 285, 355

Lucius Junius Brutus 401

Lucy, St 195, 326, 363

Lugh 206, 207–8, 537, 676

Lughnasa 206, 207–9, 217

lunar foods 519–20

Lupercalia 101, 189, 197, 209–10, 548

Lupercus see Faunus

Luria, Isaac 610

Luther, Martin 2, 564, 593

Lutzelfrau 223

lwa 342, 359, 368, 436

Lycosa tarantula 250

Mabon 210–11, 217–18

Macalzean, Euphemia 821

Macbeth (Shakespeare) 66, 77, 269, 270, 275, 291–2, 338, 386, 499

Macbeth film versions 263–5

Macbeth, Throne of Bbod 94

MacDonald, George 847

Macedonia 521

Macha 52

machismo 23

Macumba 12, 342

Madagascar 40

Maddelena 117–18

Maenad dances 243–4

Maenads 76, 186, 246, 247, 250, 301, 302, 342, 382, 383, 398, 577, 582, 704 see also Bacchanals

maestra 342

Maeve 532, 563

maga 342

mage 342

Magi 342, 343, 377

magic 342

Magic Flute, The (Mozart) 717

Magic Sampo 401, 643

magical arts 588–622

magical places 665–70

magical professions 623–44

magical thought, physical evidence 15–18

magician 343

Magician, The (Bergman) 265, 274

Magician, The (Ingram) 265–6

Magician, The (Somerset Maugham) 265, 292

magick 343

      magpies 51, 76–7

Maguire, Gregory 295

magus 343

Magus, The (Barrett) 126, 709, 746

Maia 389

Maid of the North (Phelps) 401

Maidu people 53

Maimonides, Moses 610

Maju (Sugaar) 402

Mala Liath 545

mala mujer 343

Malaya 327, 733

bomo 327

malefactor 343, 738

maleficarum 343

maleficia 260, 343, 787

Malgven 379

Mali 76, 403

Malipero, Laura 112, 124

Malleus Maleficarum (Kramer and Sprenger) 7, 109, 140, 142, 143–4, 260, 295, 343, 784, 785, 823, 835

Malta 717

Mama-Draga 344

Mamayutas 424

Mambo, Manbo 360

Mami Waters 91, 247, 304

Mana see Mania

mana 344

Mandaeans 738

Mande tradition 338, 346, 403, 404

mandrake 164–8, 175, 176, 252, 276–7, 323, 379, 740, 803

Mandrake the Magician 225, 229–30

manga and anime 297–300, 476

Mani (Manes) 31, 401, 402

Mania 200, 384, 401–2

Manicheism 31–2, 563

Mann, Thomas 735

Manriquez, Alfonso 824

Many-Breasted Artemis of Ephesus 76, 374–5, 581, 632

Mapuche people 666

Mar, Earl of 818

Marc Anthony 133

Mardi Gras 46, 245, 515, 698

Margaret of Austria 708

Mari 353, 364, 402, 552, 677

      and spinning 841

Maria Moreevna 496

Maria the Jewess 587

Marie Antionette, Queen 719

Marie de Medici 609

Marinette 80

marketplaces 670–1

Markov, Maksim 817

Marlowe, Christopher 283–4

Maroons 658

Marquis de Sade 327

Marryat, Florence 732

Mars 155, 177, 626

Marsi people 371

Marvel Comics 226, 228, 231, 234

Mary I 725–6

Mary, Queen of Scots 747, 818

Mary, Virgin 67, 160, 177, 189, 394,410, 656

      Corn Mother 420, 424–5

Mary Magdalen 631, 744

masca 344

mascot 344

Mash of Nine Sorts 518

Mask of Satan, The 251, 266–7, 312

masks 697–8

masons 628–32, 637–8

Master and Margarita, The (Bulgakov) 275, 292–3, 389, 639

Mather, Cotton 144, 490, 780, 783

Mathers, Moina Bergson 337, 748, 749

Mathers, Samuel MacGregor 114, 125, 128, 131, 337, 553, 611, 714, 721, 722, 744, 748, 749

Matthews, Caitlin and John 331

Mau 344

Mauchon, Guillaume 741

Mau-Mau leopard-men 76

Maupin, William H. A. 615

Maximilian I, Emperor 707

May Day 222

      dew collection 349

      rabbit killing 86

      see also Floralia

May Eve 151, 155, 161, 187, 211–12, 219, 362, 382, 389; see also Beltane; Walpurgis

May wine 520

Mayan codices 135–6

Mayan deities see Ix Chel

Mayans 628, 845, 846

      frogs and fertility 65

      hemerologies 110

      jaguar beliefs 75

      moon-rabbit association 85

Maypole 180, 182, 211–12, 238

McCarthy, Joseph 281

McKennitt, Lorena 256

McTeer, J. Edward 716

Medea 246, 248, 368, 371, 499, 689, 749–51

medieval

      woodcuts/engravings 261, 314–15

Mediterranean 161, 164, 173, 195, 198, 213, 352, 628, 696, 753, 850

      castanets 302

      crab-moon affiliation 519

      dualism 30

      “favism” 514

      Hecate-epilepsy association 458

      satyrion charm 582

      snake-Great Mother association 90

      traveling magicians 737

medium 344

Medusa 91, 247, 284, 304, 635, 840, 854

Menander 767

menstrual blood sacrifices 419

menstrual power 274, 632–3, 849, 851–3

Mephistopheles 283, 284

Mercator 726

Mercury 402, 676; see also Hermes

Merlin 403, 629, 739, 751–3

Merline 368

Merriam-Webster’s Online Dictionary 2

Merrick (Rice) 289

Merritt, Abraham 167, 255, 277, 281, 380 Merry Wives of Windsor 568

mescaline 179

Mesopotamia 30, 110, 240, 399, 346, 427, 505, 608

Mesopotamian deities see Innana-Ishtar

metalworkers 182, 419, 623–4, 632–9, 849

      and alchemy 585

Metamorphoses (Ovid) 846

Metropolitan Alexei 77

Mexican Days of the Dead see Dias de los Muertos

Mexican Santeria 120

Mexican Sugar Skulls 511–12

Mexico 40, 110, 135, 158, 160, 273, 650, 671, 697

      brooms 687

      jaguar masks 75

      La Santisima Muerte 411

      magic mirrors 699

      molcajete 700

      nahual 77–8

      transformation 96

      witchcraze 825

Meza Mate 659

Michael, Archangel 208, 637, 854

Mickaharic, Draja 364

Mictlancihuatl 411

Midas, King 57

Middle East 76, 164, 165, 345, 382, 396, 445, 628, 663, 696, 735, 753, 761, 845

      alchemy 586

      domestic ferrets 61

      dualism 30

      “favism” 514

      five as magical number 700

      flies as souls 62

      frame drum sieves 702

      goddess cake molds 510–11

      henna 634

      magic lamps 595

      marketplaces 670

      Pan cult 577

      sacred cows 27

      traveling magicians 737

      see also djinn

Middle Eastern deities see Asherah; Inanna-Ishtar, Lilith

Middleton, Thomas 292

Midgard Serpent 532

Midnight in the Garden of Good and Evil 267

Midsummer Night’s Dream, A (Shakespeare) 56

Midsummers Eve (St John’s Eve) 77, 168, 178, 212–13, 219, 222, 247, 362, 382, 654

      Bald Mountain 669, 672

      herbs 171, 178

      see also Ivan Kupalo; summer solstice

midwife goddesses 833–4

midwife magic 834–5

midwife persecution 835–7

midwife witch trials 837–8

midwives 444, 447, 604, 623, 624, 625, 832–3

      and brooms 687

      frog representation 66

      Jewish fairy tales 486

miko 344

Miller, Arthur 271, 281

millers 623–4, 639–43

Mimir 371

Minoans 373, 574, 696

Minos, King of Crete 573–4

Minotaur 573–5, 696

Miriam, prophetess 301, 587, 833

mirrors 698–9, 761

mistletoe 168–9, 223

Mists of Avalon, The (Bradley) 403

Miwok people 53

Mixtec codices 135–6

Mixtecs 78–9

Miyazaki, Hayao 263, 270

Mizuno, Junko 476

m’kashephah 344

m’na-hesh 345

Modron 210–11

Moirae 841

mojo 307–8, 345, 598

mojo 345

mojo bags 598

mojo hands 598

Mokosh 841

Moldavia 266, 658

molé sauce 512–13

Molland, Alice 793

Moment of Fear 280

Mondrian, Piet 714

Mone, Franz Josef 565

m’onen 345

Monk, The (Lewis) 293–4

Monte della Sibilla 675–6

Montespan, Madam de 799

Montgomery family 811–12

Monvoisin, Catherine (La Voisin) 799

Moon cakes 520–1

Moors 141, 245, 590, 768

Moravia 295, 333

Mordgud 544

Morgan le Fay (Fata Morgana) 368, 402–3, 413, 432, 485, 752

Moriarty, Theodore 294, 732

Morocco 150, 213, 557, 622

      istinzal 340

Morozko 582

Morpheus 175, 230

Morrigan, the 52, 218

Morris, Maxine 764–5

Morse, Elizabeth 838

      mortar and pestle 699–700

Moses 89, 127, 129, 414, 587, 610, 611, 702, 730

Mot 422

Mother Goose 50, 391, 488–91, 839

Mother Holle see Hulda

Mother Holle 300, 473, 477–9, 492, 838, 840

Mothers Night 222

Mount Hekla 676

Mount Sinai 129, 610, 730

mountains 671–7

mountebank 345

Mozart 336, 717

mudang 345

mugwort 169–71, 178

Muhammad 555–6

Muir Larteach 544

mullein 171, 855

mullo 690

Munich Manual of Demonic Magic 126

murmuring 500, 599

Murray, Margaret 2, 6, 194, 741, 753–4, 770, 789, 793

Musail 572

Museum of Icelandic Sorcery and Witchcraft 678

Museum of Witchcraft, Boscastle 678, 769, 770

museums of witchcraft 678

music 300–8

Muslims 81, 331, 347, 365, 612, 718

Muso Koroni 76, 403–4

Mussolini, Benito 156, 723

Mussorgsky, Modest 672

Mustelidae 59

muttering 599

Myrick, Daniel 254

Mystery of the Long Lost 8th, 9th and 10th Books of Moses 126–7

Naamah 553

nachtfrau 346

Nagas, the 91

nahual (nahualli, naualli, nagual) 77–9

Name of the Rose, The (Eco) 142

Names of Power 324, 346, 400, 739

Nantosuelta 52

Napier, Barbara 821

Napoleon 746

Narses 394

Native Americans 282, 339

      bear story 42

      bear-centered spirituality 43

      “Bear Societies” 430

      buffalo veneration 27

      Coyote 53

      crow/raven trickster heroes 52

      katchina dancers 550

      malevolent dead 652

      malevolent witchcraft 605–6

      owl familiars 79

      pow-wows 350

      sacred maize 417

      Salem fear of 781–2

      spider goddesses 94

      Spider Grandmother 842

      sweat lodges 647, 650

nature-spirit fairies 434–44

Navajo 53, 101, 606

      skin-walkers 87

Nazis 276, 658, 710, 734, 735, 736

Neanderthals 357

      bear religion 42

      bone flutes 303

      funeral rites 67

necromancer 346

necromancy 203, 304, 348, 612–16

Necromancy 715

needlework 839

Nehalennia 55

Neith 87, 840

      and spinning 841–2

Nennius 753

Neolithic era 15–16, 88, 149, 156, 173, 248, 313, 505, 539, 579, 652

Neo-Paganism 9, 258, 287, 294, 310, 326, 346, 732

      cakes-and-ale ritual 510

      and Druidry 333

      and Fairy Faith 450

      groves

      handfasting 688

      horned helmets 695

      labrys 697

      and Mexican Days of the Dead 190

      reclaiming of heathen 338

      sacred sites 644

Neo-Pagans 360, 385

      deities 384, 401, 473

      festivals 187, 189, 209, 212, 213, 218, 404, 507, 558

Nephthys 52, 87, 394, 411

Nerthus see Herta

Netherlands see Holland

Netotsi 658

nettles 171–2

New Forest 660–1, 733, 745–6, 768, 770

New Guinea 40, 90, 304

New Orleans 763, 770

      fava-bean traditions 515

      see also Bayou St John

New Orleans Voodoo 289, 360, 734, 760–1

      candle magic 595

      see also John, Dr; Laveau, Marie

New Testament 132, 152, 373, 390, 602

New Year 209–10, 648

New Year’s Day 196

New Year’s Eve 558

New Year’s festivities 551

Newberry, John 490

Newton, Isaac 590, 594

ngaka 346

Nganga 346, 348

Nicholas, St 570, 571, 580–1

Nicnevin 404, 540, 543

Nider, Johannes 102, 694

Nidud, King of the Swedes 638

Nigeria 405, 416, 664–5

nighthawks 43–4

nightjars 43–4

nightshade family 155, 161, 164

Nimue 752

nineteenth-century paintings 318–20

Nisbet, Alie 837

Nixie, Nixy 438, 445, 483

Njord 371, 384, 391, 546

nkisi 348

Noboa, Bernardo de 825

Noh drama 567

Nordic deities see Holler, Hulda; Norns

Nordic festivals see Yule

Nordic tradition 638

      asatru 324

      dwarfs 635–6

      outlaws 658

      sacred groves 530

      staffs 702

      see also runes; siedkona

Norns 292, 385, 391, 544, 682, 838

      and spinning 842

Norse deities see Angerboda; Freya; Frigga; Hella; Holler; Odin; Thor

Norse Eddas 335, 359, 406

Norse hags see Grid; Gunnlod; Hyrrokkin; Skadi; Thokk

Norse mythology 19, 181, 279, 357, 369, 372, 463, 466, 642

Norse tradition

      fjolkunnigir 335

      giants 542–3

      goats 68

      heid 339

      runic clogs 109

      seidh, seiòr 352

      sweathouses 647

      sacred “three” 543

      vardlokkur 361

      võlva 359

      Volsung Saga 92

North Africa 352 North African term

North Africa 150, 164, 165, 208, 382, 445, 515, 635, 663, 723, 761

      black cats 49

      dance mania 249

      domestic ferrets 61

      “dressing” wells 682

      five as magical number 700

      frame drum sieves 702

      horn amulets 695

      marketplaces 670

      skhur 352

      see also djinn

North America 33, 41, 42, 76, 92, 153, 155, 246, 465, 592

      Arikara Corn Mother 423

      corn–witchcraft association 417

      coyotes 53

      dog companions 54

      fertility dolls 693

      groundhog day 205

Mother Goose 490

      weasel-witchcraft association 59

      wolf-craze 100–1

North American Midwest 170

North American southwest 158

North Berwick Witch Trials 819-22

Northern Europe 168, 173, 209, 316, 338, 367, 392, 438

      bogs 678–9

      Devil’s Grandmother 541

      elder “blood” spells 159

      ergot 427

      female shamanism 20

      hags 529

      henbane beers 506

      millers 641

      nettle execution uniform 814

      sacrificial cakes 526

      vervain and iron working 182

      witch synonyms 339

Northern Renaissance 314, 316–17

Northwest Africa 76, 168

Norton, Mother 793

Norway 385, 389

      miller legend 642

      St Lucy 195

      troll-hags 547

Nostradamus, Michel de 110, 243, 754–7

novena 854

Noyes, Reverend 783

Nu Kua 90, 607

Nunn, Trevor 263–4

Nurse, Rebecca 668

nyama 346

Nyx (Nox) 174, 230, 404–5, 626, 665

Oaxaca 79, 135, 512, 513

Obatala 664

Obeah 130, 346–7

Obeah Stick 702

Oberon 579

Obon Festival 200

Ochossi, Oxossi 351, 405, 637, 659

Od 384

Odin/Wotan/Woden 42–3, 47, 52, 102, 195, 213, 221, 222, 223, 290, 359, 363, 369, 370, 371, 384, 385, 388, 391, 392, 405–7, 430, 542, 546, 570, 580, 581, 618, 664, 702

Odysseus 19, 99, 100, 379, 389, 465, 613, 691

Odyssey 99, 102, 378, 613

Oedipus 248, 465, 563

Ogou 359

Ogou-le-Rouge 98, 695

Ogun 25, 55, 91, 247, 323, 348, 405, 407, 416, 523, 575–6, 634, 689

      and the forest 659

      metalworking 636–7

Ojibwa 43, 103, 156, 290–1

Okesa the dancer 49

Olcott, Henry Steel 711, 712, 714, 762

Old Farmers Almanac, The 110

Old Testament 31, 56, 80, 89, 164–5, 239, 511, 530, 560, 728, 846

Old Woman in the Forest, The 479

Old Woman’s Mountain 676

O’Lee, Murough

      Olokun 416

Oneirocriticon of Achmet, The 113

Oni 567, 575

Onmyo-Do 347, 706

Onmyoji 298, 299, 347, 701, 706

Onmyoji 706

oosood 433

operas 307

Ophion 90

opium 173–4, 383, 694

opium poppy 173–5

Oracle at Delphi 67, 91–2, 397, 603, 703

Order of the Silver Star 722

Ordinaire, Dr 501–2

Ordo Templi Orientis (OTO) 347, 556, 721, 723

Origen 738, 768

orisha 347, 367, 368, 416, 436

      syncretism with saints 351

Orisha Oko 323, 407

orixa 347

Orpheus 300, 389, 750

Osain 637, 659–61

Osborne, John and Ruth 794

Osborne, Sarah 782

Oshun 67, 323, 408, 522, 532, 596, 637, 645, 664, 665, 699

swamp witch 680

Osiris 53, 199, 222, 394, 411, 424, 509, 587, 652, 679, 701

Osorkon II of Egypt 46

Ostara 85, 192, 213, 217–18, 392

Oswald, Richard 253

Ötsi 156

ouija boards 615–16

Outlawe, Roger 808, 809

Outlawe, William 808, 809, 810

Ovid 199, 200, 515, 846

owls 43, 79–81

      and hags 539

Oya 171, 189, 197,416, 575–6, 634, 637, 671

Pachamama 426, 834

Pacific Northwest 51, 52, 61, 465–6

Paculla Annia 777

Pagan 347–8

Pagan Gnosticism 30

Paganini, Niccolo 306

paket kongo 348, 598–9

Palace of the Occult 735

Paleolithic era 15–16, 24, 42, 79, 147, 238, 313, 696

palero 348

palm reading (chiromancy) 603

Palo 348, 407, 636, 742

Pan 17, 68, 74, 202, 244, 246, 383, 548, 549, 563, 565, 567, 568, 576–8, 582 Pan de Muerto 513–14

      pancakes 521

      panpipes 304–5, 576

Papa Bois 578, 659

Papa Legba 248

Pappenheimer family 801

Paracelsus 174, 584–5, 594, 755, 758

Paraskeva, St 841, 843

Parcae 842

Parentalia 200–1

Paris, Jacques 744

Parker Brothers 615

Parris, Betty 282, 782

Parris, Samuel 668, 782

Parsons, Louella 274

Parvati 412

Pashupati 578–9

Pasiphae 574

Patai, Raphael 129

      pataki 449, 463

Paterson, Bartie 49

      path 348

Patrick, St 134, 537

Paul of Tarsus 381

Paul, St 132, 375, 618

Paulus 604

Pawnee Indians 102

Peck Scott, M. 772

PectiWita 715

Pelasgian creation myth 90

Pele 396–7

Pelias, King of Iolchis 750–1

Pendell, Dale 506

Pendle Hill 676

Pendle Forest Witches 676, 790–1

Pennsylvania Dutch 327, 350, 619, 700

      pentacle (pentagram) 700–1

Pepper, Elizabeth 110

Perchta 223, 244–5, 363, 367, 406, 408–9, 509, 521, 580

Corn Mother 425

      and spinning 842 Perchtennacht 245, 409

Perchtentanz 244–5, 425

      percussion instruments see drums Peri 439

Perkins, William 144–5

Pernod 502

Pernod, Henri-Louis 502

Perrault, Charles 461, 489

Persephone 55, 83, 91, 174, 182, 211, 247, 373, 382, 387, 389, 420–2, 509, 523, 540, 626, 695; see also Proserpina

Perses 387

Persia 30, 31, 343, 847

Peru 65, 81, 156, 157, 179, 424, 834

      witchcraze 825

Peter, St 179, 767, 768

Peter Chrysologus, St 551

Peter the Great 817 Petit Albert, Lei 10

Petrie, Flinders 753

Petronilla de Meath 452, 807, 808, 810

Petronius 515

Petursson, Arni 806 Phallus impudicus (stinkhorn) 525

phamarkis 349

      pharmakin/pharmaka 349

Philip II of Spain 825

Philip the Apostle 767

Philippines 324

Siquijor Island 669–70

Phillip II of Spain 157

Philomela 846

Philosophers Stone 587–8, 718, 727, 731, 743

Phips, Governor 783, 784 Picatrix 127

Pickingill, “Old George” 758–9

Piersoun, Alesoun 460, 818–19

      pigs 81–4

Pilato, Lake 675–6

Pincoya 666

Pinto, Emanuel 717–18

Pirta Mate 649

      piseog, pishogue 349

      pishoguery 349

Pius VI, Pope 716–17, 719, 720

      places 644–82

      planchettes 614

Plato 337, 343, 349, 356, 613, 707, 709, 730, 833

Pliny the Elder 183, 331, 332

Plotinus 707

Plutarch 46, 199, 577

Pluto 410

Plymouth Brethren 720

Poe, Edgar Allen 257

Poirier, Shawn 668

Poland 726

      mandrake gathering 168

      mugwort 169 ovinnik (cat spirit) 49 “spoiling” into werewolves 103

toad-witchcraft association 66

witchcraze 807, 813

Polanski, Roman 264, 268

Polar Bear King, The 407, 547

Polar Bear King Valemon 547

Poludnica 425

Pomba Gira 566, 655, 656

Pomona 202–3, 503

Pontius Pilate 675, 738

Ponty, Jean-Luc 262

Poor Richard’s Almanac 110

“popular art” 314

popular songs 307

Portugal 97, 122

      witchcraze 806

Poseidon 573–1-, 581

Potocki, Jean 106

Potts, Thomas 790

      power doctors 349

Pow-Wow 121, 130–1, 339, 349–50, 600

      hexenmeister 339

Pre-Raphaelites 318–20

Prince Danila Govorila 493

Princess and the Goblin, The (MacDonald) 847

      printing press 108, 116, 314

Priory of Sion 631

      processions 245–6

Proclus 356, 589

Proctor, John and Elizabeth 282

Proserpina 108, 384, 409–10, 665; see also Persephone

protective measures 853–5

Protestantism 141, 336, 347, 755

Protestants 139, 322, 527, 786

Psyche 626

psychic visions 603

psychopomps 325, 350, 389, 433, 531–2, 539

Ptah 15

Ptolemy II 133

Pueblo Indians 63, 97, 98

Puerto Rico 65

Pullman, Philip 20, 287

pumpkins 521–2

Punic War 50

Punt 38

Puritans 144, 222, 282, 688, 781, 788, 792

Puss in Boots 639, 640

Putnam, Anne 668, 783

Puy de Dôme 208, 676–7

pysanky 193

Pythagoras 759–60

Qabala 612

qosem 350

Queen of Heaven 511

Queen of Sheba 399, 489

Quetzalcoatl 91, 414, 512

Quine, Richard 253

Ra 38, 394, 415, 568, 841

rabbits 85–6

Rabelais, François 723

Rabenalt, Arthur Maria 253

Rachel 165

Ràcz, Erzsébet 460

Ragana 410, 438

Randolph, Paschal Beverly 721, 760–2

rapunzel (rampion) 522

Rapunzel 8, 474, 479–80, 500

Rashi 685

Rategno, Bernado 372

Ratherius, Bishop of Verona 390

Ratoff, Gregory 717

      ravens 51–2, 376

Raziel, Angel 107, 116

Read, Donna 256

Rebennack, Mac 741

Red Dragon, The 127–8

Red Shoes, The 482

Reeves, Michael 257

Reeves, Washington 764

Regino of Priim 381

Regino, Bishop 784

reindeer 75, 153, 581, 626

Remy, Nicholas 48, 55, 142, 145, 795–6

Renaissance 662, 730

Northern 314, 316–17

Rene d’Anjou 740, 754

Reuss, Theodor 347, 721

rhizotomoki 350

rhythm and blues 307–8

Rice Mother 425

Rice, Ann 289

Richelieu, Cardinal 797, 798

Rigaud, Milo 414

Rimsky-Korsakov, Nikolai 672

ring dance 238

ring forts see fairy forts

Ring of the Nibelungs, The 391

ritual possession 616–17

Robin Goodfellow 579

Robin Hood 658

Robinson, Stepney 716

Rod 579, 580

Rolling Stones, The 293

Roman Catholicism 123, 126, 268, 293, 347, 348, 357, 411, 717, 736, 779

      and Black Mass 326

      Canon Episcopi 784

      communion wafers 424

      exorcism 455, 457, 602

      Holy Cards 688

      Jews/witches 351

      and Manicheism 31

      saints syncretized 205, 351, 359, 371, 405

      and Santeria 351–2

      werewolf beliefs 103–4

      and witchcraze 785–6, 795, 797, 824

      see also Inquisition; Spanish Inquisition

Roman Catholic festivals see All Hallows Eve; All Saint’s Day; Candlemas

Roman Catholics 780, 788, 821

Roman Empire 57, 371, 515, 685, 768

      Christianity official 785

Romania 84, 242, 305, 354, 382, 391, 451, 558, 658

      fairy magicians 451

      goat dance 242

Romany people 484, 520, 707, 773–4

      ironworking clans 634

      love of violins 305

      Netotsi 658

      New Forest 661, 745

      San Cipriano 122

      Satan association 564

      tarantism 249

      Tarot origins 621, 622

Romany fairies see Keshalyi

Romany tradition 121, 232, 339, 433

      banshees 325

      black cats 49

      chovihano/chovihani 329

      datura 158

      drabarni 331

      drabengro 331

      drum divination 302

      jumping the broomstick 688

      magic elm wands 161

      menstrual curse 852

      mullo 690

      orchid root gathering 168

      pig-sty dream incubation 84

      putzi (charm bags) 597

      violin music 306

      wolf–witch association 101

Romulus and Remus 101, 200, 210

Roosevelt, Franklin 264

root doctor, root woman, root-worker 350 see also Buzzard, Dr

roots 175–6

Rosemary’s Baby 266, 268

Rosenberg, Ethel and Julius 281

Rosicrucians 765

Rosmerta 91

Ross, Balthasar 801

round dance 238

rowan 176–7, 855

rowan 855

Rowling, J. K. 14, 94, 261, 286, 444

Rozhanitsy (fate fairies) 649

Rozhanitsy (horned) 579–80

Rübezahl 410–11, 673

RübezahVs Wedding 411

Rucker, “Black” Herman 132, 336, 762–4

Rudolph II, Emperor 726, 743

Rudolph II of Bohemia 588

rue 177–8, 326

Rügen Island 391, 663–4

Rugeviet 664

Rugiu Boba 425

Rumpelstiltskin 639–40

rune-caster 351

runes 176, 350–1, 510, 617–19

      banned in Iceland 806 see also Hag Rune

Rural (Lesser) Dionysia 222

Rus 533

Rusalka 415, 431, 435, 436, 439–40, 483, 492, 645, 659, 711–12

Russia 123, 150, 157, 212, 273, 529, 711, 712, 745, 843

      banias (bathhouses) 647–9

      birch bark “paper” 156

      botanical magic 672

      bread ladders 508

      Charovnik 328

      chernobyl (mugwort) 169

      Christmas celebrations 222

      dark half of the year 218

      Devil’s Grandmother 541

      “double-faith” 491, 649

      ergotism 426

      foot-track magic 688

      Herod’s Daughters 391

      Ivan Kupalo 205–6

      magic word charms 600

      magpie-witches 77

      masks 698

      mushroom spirits 153–4

      ovinnik (cat spirit) 49

      story-telling condemned 464

      transformation 96, 98

      whispering spells 523

      witch synonyms 8, 341, 358, 832

      witchcraze 774, 816–18

Russian spirits see banniks; Leshii; Leshovhika; Rusalka; Vodianoi

Russia deities see Baba Yaga; Mokosh; Poludnica; Rod

Russian fairy tales 461, 463, 473–4, 491–7

Ryall, Rhiannon 452, 686

Rye Mother 426, 427, 429, 430

Rye Wolf 429–30

Saami people 288, 302, 484, 581, 599, 772, 773–4

Saami shamans 62, 221, 302, 581,626, 738

sabbat 214–18, 351

      modern Wicca 217–18

      witch hunters 214–17

Sabrina the Teenage Witch (comic) 230

Sabrina the Teenage Witch (television series) 313

Sacred Book of Abramelin the Mage, The 128–9, 731, 746, 749

sagae 351

Saint John s Wort 178–9

Saint Patrick’s Breastplate 8

Saint-Germain, Comte de 585

Salem 667–9

Salem witchcraze 144, 252, 281–2, 427, 678, 693, 781–4, 837

      fiction 311–12

Salome 238–9, 390

salt 522–3

Samael 400, 487, 557, 561

Samaria 767

Samaritans 107, 331, 738

Samhain 19, 163, 187, 202, 211, 217,218–19, 404, 419, 538, 540

Sampson, Agnes 67, 819–20, 821

Samuel, Alice 789–80

Samuel, prophet 728

Samuel, Rabbi 610

Samurai 575

San Pedro 179–80

Sanchez, Eduardo 254

Sanders, Alex 764–5

Sandman, The 228, 230–1

Saning Sari 425

Santa Claus (Father Christmas) 153, 195, 221, 222, 223, 363, 392, 406, 437, 549, 563, 570, 580–2, 626, 687

Santería 120, 347, 348, 351–2, 365, 405, 449, 463, 565, 576, 607, 636, 637, 680, 742

Santero/Santera 351

Santisima Muerte, La 395, 411

Sappho 386

Sarah 587

Saramama 426, 825

Sarasvati 156

Satan 58, 78, 84, 98, 141, 146, 167, 212, 268, 314, 315, 367, 389, 427, 459, 547, 560, 637, 639, 700, 756, 820, 823, 824, 825, 830, 835

      bat associations 39

      “black man” 472, 563

      Black Mass 326

      cat identification 49

      cloven footed/limping 248

      in comics 226–7

      crow identification 52

      and Dahut 380

      dog association 55

      donkey form 57

      in film 261–2

      goat identification 44, 68, 242, 548–9, 562

      identified with millers 641

      identified with horned spirits 552

      identified with Loki 370

      identified with Lucifer 372

      identified with Tezcatlipoca 414

      Satan/Lucifer in literature 293–4

      magpie identification 77

      “red man” 473

      snake identification 88, 172, 561

      and violin 305–6

      women’s susceptibility 102, 282–3

      witchcraze 145, 783, 784, 791, 793, 801

      wormwood association 501

Satanic pact 98, 292–3, 306, 564–5,729

Satanism 33, 112, 564, 616, 617, 701, 720

SATOR square 509–10

Saturn 221–2, 526, 581

Saturnalia 221–2, 515, 526, 581

satyrs 57, 244, 548, 565, 577, 582

Saul, Barnabas 726

Saul, King 728

Saule 842

Savage, Candace 3

savin 163

Savini, Nicholas 707

Scandinavia 171, 213, 385, 389

      asatru 324

      crow/raven trickster heroes 52

      female trolls 357

      fly familiars 62

      Frigga’s Distaff 840

      pig-sty dream incubation 84

      sacred cows 27

      seiòr 352

      St Lucy 195

      toad fertility symbols 65

      transformation 96

      trollkvinna 442

      Wild Hunt 363

Scarlet Witch, The 231–2

Scheibel, Johann 130

Schenk von Limburg, Georg III 729

Scholem, Gershorn 128

Schwaegel, Anna Maria 625, 805

Schweigel, Schultheis 804

scobaces 352

scorpions 86–7, 93

Scot, Michael 765

Scot, Reginald 66, 142, 145–6, 236, 243, 291, 791, 819

Scotland 190, 330, 336, 360, 751

      alder prized 151

      banshees 325

      Cailleach 536

      image magic 609

      magpie-witches 77

      Miller’s Word 641

      stonemasons’ guilds 631

      witch-cats 48

      witchcraze 49, 67, 142, 217, 291, 432, 460, 732, 753, 772, 815, 818–24, 837

Scotland deities see Nicnevin

Scotland fairies see Habetrot

Scotland hags see Cailleach Uragaig; Gyre Carlin; Mala Liath

Scott, Walter 508

Scottish Highland fairies see Cait Sith; sidhe

Scottish Highland hags see Cailleach Bhéara; Cailleach Bheur

Scottish Highland spirits see Baobhan Sith

Scottish Highlands 176, 177

      “burning the witches” 189

      Beltane cakes 506–7, 534

      Beltane ritual 508

      “midwife’s baptism” 834

Scottish Romany lore 325

scry 352, 602–3, 692, 726, 743

Scylla 387

Scythian shamans 102

Scythians 336, 698

Se’irim 583

séances 613–14

Seaton, David 819

Seax-Wicca 715

Sebastian, St 351, 405

second sight 352

Secret of Secrets 129

Secrets of Dr Taverner; The (Fortune) 294

Sedna 14

seer 352

Sefer Habahir 610

Sefer Tetzirah 610

seidh, seiôr 352, 359

Sekhmet 38, 46

Selene 373, 387

Semele (Stimula, Simula) 776, 382

Semites 65, 554

Semitic deities see Azazel, Ba’al; Lilith; Se’irim

Semon, Larry 274

Sendivogius, Michael 765

Sephirot 611

Sequana 489

Serapis 91

Serbia 451, 509

Serena, wife of Flavius Stilicho 399

Serket 87

serpentine dances 246–7

Set, Seth 56, 81, 199, 394, 411–12, 679

Seton, Alexander 765

Seven African Powers 854

Seven Hathors 434

Seven Sisters 766

Seventh Seal, The 242, 269

Severus Alexander, Emperor 332

Sewall, Samuel 781

sex magic 337, 347, 761–2

Shakespeare 56, 66, 77, 162, 178, 263, 269, 270, 284, 291, 294, 338, 499, 568, 726, 739

shamanic battling 466

shamanic curses 849

shamanic divination 603

shamanic journey 484

      brooms 687

      drums and 302

shamanic masks 697–8

shamanic resurrection 465–6

shamanic vision 19–23

      revealing animal allies 36

shamanism 264, 265, 325, 391, 441

      and Amanita muscaria 153

      Baba Yaga 377, 376

      and bears 41, 238

      chimney sweep links 559

      Circe and 379

      and coachmen 625–6

      drums 301

      Ethiopian 324

      European 694

      and flies 62

      and healing 606

      and hedges 681

      and horses 627

      Korean 345

      limping/shuffling 248, 296–7, 465, 550

      midwives 833

      and millers 641

      and music 301

      Saami 62, 221, 581

      San Pedro 179

      Siberian 80, 96

      South American 75

      Taoist 248

      tomb resting 652

      witchcraze targeting 774

      wolf’s claw 183

      wolf-shamanism see also Benandanti; ciaraulo; fetch; fire-walking; miko; ritual possession 616; soul-journey; taltos; volkhv/volkva

shamrocks 349

Shango 301

shape-shifting see transformation

Sheela na Gig 546–7

Shelley, Mary 261, 609

Sherwood, Grace 780–1

shikigami, shikijin 352

Shinto 63, 364, 636

Shipton, Mother 766–7

Shiva 25, 91, 240, 301, 302, 367, 395, 412, 563, 579

      horned one 583

Shonen Jump 300

Shorr, Richard 272

Shrove Tuesday 521

shuttles 846

Siberia 150, 153, 157, 573

      crow/raven trickster heroes 52

      ‘live thing” extraction 606

      magpie-witches 77

      St John’s Day 212–13

      transformation 96

Siberian Lady Macbeth 269

Siberian shamanism 80, 96, 153

Sibillia, Sibilla 412–13, 662, 673, 675

Sibyl 352

Sibylline Books, The 135, 136–8

Sibyls 397, 662

Sicilian fairy cult 457–9, 666

Sicilian martyrs see St Agatha, St Lucy

Sicily 198, 409, 717, 722, 755

      ciaraulo 329

      dr ago 331

sidhe 431, 436, 440–1, 445, 461, 522

      solitary 441–2

Siduri 397

siedkona 352, 626

Siegfried 101

sieves 701–2

sigils 510, 584, 618, 619–20

Sigurd 92

Simbi 91, 247, 348, 413–14, 447

Simon bar Yochai 610, 611

Simon Magus 737, 738, 767–8

Simonian Gnosticism 767, 768

Simpson, William 819

singing 599

Siquijor Island 669–70

Sirens 387

Sirona 55

sistrum 303

      Sixth and Seventh Books of Moses 121, 128, 129–31

Sixtus iy Pope 824

Skadi 545–6

skhur 352

skin-walkers 87–8

Skogsfruar 659

Slavic deities see Kupala; Rod; Svarog

Slavic spirits see Bereginy; Bolotnyi; Rusalka; Vila

Slavic tradition 159, 219, 433

      bathhouses 649

      church bell grease 685

      crossroads 654

      “disheveled hair” 14

      grabancijas 336

      leg bone flutes 304

      millers 641

      “mutterer” 22

      nvjestica 358

      ovinnik (cat spirit) 49

      pig-sty dream incubation 84

      Rügen Island 664

      Rye Wolf 429

      spoiling 353–4

      vampire cats 48

      vampires 358

      Walpurgis Night 192

      wolves 572

Slavonia 341, 444

Sleeping Beauty 433, 461

Sleeping Beauty (Disney) 260

slit-drums 303

Smith, J. T. “Funny Paper” 766

Smith, Morton 738, 739

Smith, Thorne 262

smiths see metalworkers

snake cake 523–4

snake dance 245, 246–8

snake spirits 633

snakes 88–93, 172, 181, 183, 198, 350, 389, 537, 539, 561

      and healing 329

      and wisdom 8–9 see also Festa dei Serparv, m’na-hesh; Simbi

Snow Queen, The 483–4

Snow White 8, 481

Snow White (Fleischer Studios) 259

Snow White and Rose Red 43

Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs (Disney) 259, 260, 273, 274, 481

Society of Inner Light 732

solitary 352

solitary sidhe 441–2

Solomon, King 62, 115, 116, 124, 125, 129, 131, 553, 600-1, 611, 738

Solomon ibn Gabirol 610

Somerset Maugham, W 265, 266, 292

Somerset witch trials 793

Somnus 175

Song of the Nibelungs, The 704

Sophocles 846

sorcellerie 352

sorcerer, sorceress 353

Sorceress, The 497

sorcery 353

sorcier/sorcière 353

Sorensdatter, Anne 482

sorguine 353

“soul loss” 625

soul-journey 353

South Africa 39

      witchcraze 775–6

South America 190, 305

      devil masks 698

      jaguars 74

      “live thing” extraction 606

      slit-drums 303

      vampire bats 357

      “vampiric” spirits 40

Southwell, Thomas 787

Sowthern, Elizabeth (Mother Demdike) 790–1

Spain 31, 127, 141, 164, 249, 590, 621, 773

      Book of San Cipriano 122

      brooms love spells 688

      brujeria 317, 327–8

      witchcraze 806, 824

Spanish colonies, witchcraze 824–6, 837–8

Spanish Conquistadors 135, 157, 415, 650, 666

Spanish Inquisition 78, 144, 157, 277, 293, 339, 343, 423, 457–8, 666, 824

      Basque region 778, 806

      colonies 179, 825–6, 837

speculaas poppen 526–7

Spee, Friedrich 138, 146, 804–5, 828

spell-casting 620

Spellman, Benny 307

Spider Grandmother 842

Spider Woman 843

spiders 93–5, 251 see also tarentella

Spies, J. 283

Spina, Alfonso de 556–7

spindle whorls 81, 847

spindles 354, 470–1, 478, 846

spinning 93, 364, 414, 838–9

spinning goddesses 839–44

spinning tools 844–7

spinning wheels 847

spiral dances 246–7

spirit working/spirit summoning 601, 620–1

Spirited Away 100, 270

Spiritism 348, 353, 357

spiritualism 353, 613, 614, 712, 714, 761

spoiling 103, 353–4

Sprenger, James 142, 143–4

spring equinox 196, 204

St Anthony’s Fire 427

St Denis, Ruth 240

St John’s Eve 49, 178, 648, 679, 745 see also Midsummer’s Eve

St Osyth trial 789

St Valentine’s Day 203

St Vitus’ Dance 249, 444

staffs 702–3

Stalin, Josef 293

Starhawk 256

Steiner, Rudolf 714

Step of Yu 248

Stephen, King of Hungary 674

Stephen, King of Poland 726

Stoker, Bram 40, 357, 627

Stonehenge 644, 751

stonemasons 623–4, 628–32

Strauss, Johann 717

Strega (drink) 666

strega 79, 344, 354

strega liquore 524–5

stregheria 250, 354, 382

striga 285, 334, 344

strigoii 354

strigula 354

strix, strigae 79, 80, 90, 334, 344, 354, 354–5, 399

Stuart, John 822

Student of Prague, The 276

Stump, Peter 105

Sturluson, Sturri 385

sub-Saharan Africa 127, 247

      fertility dolls 693

      horn amulets 695

      malevolent magic 605, 608

      witchcraze 775

Sufis 236, 612, 755

Sulfurino, Jonas 122

Sumatra 425

Sumerian deities see Bau; Uttu

Sumeria 68, 337, 351, 399, 399, 505, 833

summer solstice 56, 178, 206, 211, 217

Summers, Montague 770

Sunrise 299

Superman 225, 229, 235

Surinam 327, 342

Susanowo 91

Svantovit 664

Svarog 637

Swamp Thing 228

      swamps 678–80

Sweden 191, 269, 385

      Easter postcards 321

      Feast of St Lucy 195

      magpie-witches 77

      Skogsfruar 659

      transformation 96

      vargamors (wolf-women) 101

      witch’s butter 525

      witchcraze 672, 826–7

      yuletide boar cakes 223 see also Easter witches

sweet woodruff 520

Swinburne, Algernon Charles 391

Switzerland 42, 502, 748, 758, 765

      hex signs 619

      St Lucy 195–6

      Tante Arie 414

      witchcraze 139, 140, 827

swords 703

Sybil of Bernshaw Tower, Lady 96

Sylvanus 583

Sylvester, Pope 130

      synchronicity 603

      syncretism (identification) 562

Szombathy, Josef 16

Tacitus 323, 332, 391, 618, 710

Tages 107, 134

Tailtiu 208

Taino people 65

Takita, Yojiro 706

talb 355

Tale of Kowashis Mother, The 498

Tale of Theophilus 564–5

Talmud 130, 620

tältos 355–6, 466, 627

Tam Lin 445

tambourines 303

Tammuz 304, 541, 577

Tannhaüser 674–5

Tanta Arie 662

Tanta, Maria Chaupis 825

Tantalos and Pelops 629

Tante Arie 414, 662

      and spinning 843–4

Tantra 330, 347, 365, 435, 722

Tanzania 63

Taoism 329, 347, 588–9

      transformation 97, 99

Taoist shamans 248

tarantella 248–51, 301, 306, 44

tarantism 249

Tarot 325, 345, 389, 406, 414, 465–6, 519, 556, 603, 621–2, 630–1, 688, 691, 701, 702, 703, 736, 747

Tarot: Witch of the Black Zone 232–3

Tarquin the Proud 136–7

Tartarotti, Girolamo 754

Tegidfoel 378

Telepinu 396

television 308–13

Tellus 422

temescal 649–51

Tempest, The (Shakespeare) 294, 727

Teniers, David the Younger 317

Tennant, Anne 794, 795

Tereus, King of Thrace 846

Tertullian 277

Tetragrammaton 747

Teutates 690

Teutonic Mythology (Grimm) 47, 469

Teutonic tradition 437, 591, 637, 641, 660, 663, 689

      see also elves

Tewa people 53

Tezcatlipoca 75, 78, 80, 304, 414, 650, 699

Thai penis amulet 26

Thamus 577

Thanatos 174

Thelema 723

Theodosius, Emperor 785

Theodosius II, Emperor 663

Theophilus of Alexandria 133, 589

Theosophical Society 711, 712-13, 724, 732, 744, 762

theosophy 712–13, 744, 768

Theseus 574, 751

Thesmophoria 83, 509, 523

Thessalian witches 167, 231, 283, 759

Thessaly Witch for Hire 231

theurgy 337, 356

Thiazzi 545

Thiess, the Livonian Werewolf 106, 430

Thokk 547

Thomas the Rhymer 446

Thomas, Isaiah 490

Thompson, Margaret 821

Thompson, Robert Farris 345

Thompson, Thomas 758

Thor 25, 68, 177, 369, 370, 466, 543, 544, 626, 696–7

thorn apple 158

Thoth 38, 107, 116, 229, 393–4, 414–15, 600, 737

Thrace 382, 665, 846

Three Spirit Nights 219

thresholds 530, 645, 679, 680–1

Throckmorton family 789–90

Throne of Blood 270–1

thyrsus 244, 383, 704

Tiberius, Emperor 577

Tibet 63, 712, 724

time of day 219

Timofeevna, Marfa 817

Titans 382, 387

Tituba 282, 668, 782

Tlazolteotl 52, 80, 415, 650, 687

toads 59, 65–7, 154, 484

Togashi, Yoshihiro 300

Tokyo Babylon 298

TOKYOPOP 298, 299

Toledo 277, 612, 731, 765, 768

Tolkien, J. R. R. 94, 279, 290, 436, 702

Toltec tradition 78–9

tools of witchcraft 603–704

torture 140, 143–4, 458, 774, 791–2, 800, 806–7, 827–30

Touch of Evil, A 251

Tourneur, Jacques 256

Traditional Chinese Medicine 21, 149, 684

transformation 95–100

transformation tales 498

transvection 356

Transylvania 437, 658,

      witchcraze 773, 774, 785

Tree of Knowledge 154

trees 180–2, 652 see also forests; groves

treguenda (danza alia strega) 251

Trembles, Mary 793

Trifon, St 197

Trinidad and Tobago 578, 659

tripods 703

Trithemius, Abbot 707, 729

Triton 387

troll-hags 547

trollkvinna 356–7, 442

trolls 442, 445

True Grimoire 131

Tuatha de Danann 440

Tubal-Cain 553, 557, 637–8

Tukana Indians 44

tulpa 725

Tündér 431, 443, 451

Tunisia 150, 213

Turkey 55, 150, 369, 374, 386, 397, 399, 580, 662, 735, 761

Tutankhamun 76

Twelfth Night 245, 842

Twelve Dancing Princesses, The 462–3

Twelve Days of Christmas 245, 363, 392

Twelve Nights of Christmas 219–20, 362, 521

two sisters motif 466

Tylor, Edward 18

Tylwyth Teg 443

Tynan, Kenneth 264

Ukraine 358, 423, 439

      pysanky (Easter eggs) 193

      toad–witchcraft association 66

      witch synonyms 88 see also Bald Mountain

Ulster Cycle 332

Umbanda 122, 336, 353, 357

Under the Glass Moon 297, 299

unholden 357

United States 112, 150, 161, 222, 256, 257, 262, 266, 271, 281, 330, 712, 715, 745

      absinthe ban 502

      comics 225–6

      datura ban 158

      distorted Haitian culture 365

      ergot uses 429

      frizzled poultry protection 50

      “hard cider” 525

      Halloween 191

      jack o’lanterns 522

      jinx 340

      magic mirrors 761

      maize corn 417

      power doctors 349

      Prohibition 505

      rabbit trickster spirits 85

      spiritualism 353, 613

      Wicca 714, 715

Unke 90

upir 357

Uranus 404

Urd 544

Uttu 844

Vainamoinen 643

Valentine’s Day 101, 197, 210

Valhalla 370

Valiente, Doreen 111, 112, 111, 118, 723, 733, 768

Valkyries 47, 195, 357, 384, 388, 444, 550, 638, 696

vampire bats 40

vampire, vampyr 357–8

      as witch synonym 216

Vampirella 233, 401

Vanir, Vana 358, 369, 370–1, 382, 391

vardlokkur 361 Vasilisa the Wise 473, 475–6, 494–6

Vatican 143, 268, 336, 424, 709, 730

Vatican Library 123, 135, 138, 738

Vavra, Otakar 271–2

ved’ma, ved’mak, ved’mar 358, 361

Veleda 710

veneficia, venefica 358

Venerable Bede 222

Venus of Willendorf 16

vernal equinox 85, 192, 213, 361, 371

Vertigo Comics 227, 228, 230, 230, 234

Vertumnus 202–3

vervain 182

Vestal Virgins 201

vetulae 358

Vidar 543

Vietnam 52

Vietnamese astrology 593

View of the Duplicity of the Messengers of Evil, A (de Lancre) 144

Vigoreux, Madame 798–9

Vi], The (Gogol) 266

Vila, Wila, Veles, Veela, Vily 415, 433, 434, 435, 443–4, 451, 645, 659

violins 305–7

Virbius 381, 541, 583, 663

Virgil 386, 612, 768–9

visual arts 313–21

Vital, Chaim 610

vitki 361

Vivien 752

vjestica 358, 361

Vodianoi 641–2

Vodo 359

Vodou, Vodoun 130, 336, 347, 359–60, 365, 407, 550, 565, 607, 679

      Masonic components 213

      paket kongo 348

      parade of spirits 245

      pumpkins 522

      ritual possession 616

      veves 619

volkhv/volkva 358

Volsung Saga 92

Voluspa, The 359

völva 359, 371, 384

von Dornheim, Gottfried Johann Georg II Fuchs 801–2

von Ehrenberg, Phillipp Adolf 803

Voodoo 121, 360, 565

“Voodoo dolls” 607

Vortigern 629

      vucodlak 360

Vulcan 636

Vulgate Cycle 402

Wadjet 91

Wagner, Richard 391

Waite, Arthur E. 122, 129, 130, 337, 622, 720

Wajda, Andrzej 269

Wales 188, 207–8

      owl hooting 81

      rowan trees 177

Three Spirit Nights 219 see also Druids: Cerridwen

“Walnut Witches” 665

Walpurga 220, 562

Walpurga, St 220

Walpurgis 151, 152, 192, 220-1, 284, 385, 673–4

Walton, Charles 794–5

Waluberg 710

Wandering Jew 413,719

wands 182, 697, 703–4; see also thyrsus

wanga 360

Warboys Witches 789–90

ward, warding 360

warlock 254, 311, 360–1

Warren Magazines 233

Waterhouse, Agnes 788

Waterhouse, Joan 788

Waterhouse, John William 319

Waters, Muddy 307

Watkins, Alfred 451–2

Wayland the Smith 248, 638–9

weasels 59–62

Webster’s Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary 1

Wegener, Paul 260, 261

Weiditz II, Hans 317

Weird Sisters 260, 843

Weird Woman 261, 271

Well of Urd 682, 838, 842

Welles, Orson 251, 264–5, 308, 715, 717

wells 681–2

Wells, H. G. 745

Welsh deities see Cerridwen

Welsh Romany lore 325

Welsh spirits see Tylwyth Teg

Wends 425

Wendy the Good Little Witch 233–4

Wenger, Suzanne 664–5

werewolf panic 102, 104, 145

werewolf-transformation ointment 695

werewolves 95, 102–6, 381, 429–30; see also vucodlak

West Africa 247, 338, 339, 358, 407, 663, 670, 734

West African deities see Eshu-Elegbara; Ogun

West Country Wicca (Ryall) 452

West, Kipling 73

Western alchemy 586–8

Western Asia 53, 162–3, 386, 393

Western Europe 272, 427, 438

      ergotism 427

Weyer, Johann 125, 140, 146, 709, 729

Wheel of the Year 217, 351

whispering 354, 361, 500, 523, 599

White Goddess, The (Graves) 519

White Women 415

Whittle, Anne (Old Chattox) 790, 791

Wicca 2, 112, 187, 226, 287, 299, 310, 312, 319, 326, 347, 361–2, 686, 723, 731, 764

      cakes-and-ale ritual 510

      definition 13

      Dianic 715–16

      esbat 194

      Gardnerian 13, 118, 258, 288, 714, 720, 732, 733, 753, 768

      handfasting 688

      horned helmets 695

      New Forest 660

      PectiWicca 715

      sacred sites 644

      Seax-Wicca 695

      solitary 724

      widdershins 362

Wiccan Books of Shadows 111–13

Wiccan Rede 721

Wiccan sabbats 214, 217–18, 351 see also Beltane; Imbolc; Lammas, Litha, Lughnasa; Mabon; Ostara; Yule

Wiccan tools see athame; bolline; chalice; cingulam; pentacle; swords

wicca/wicce, definition 13

Wiccan, definition 13

Wiccans 111, 311, 386

      in Salem 668

      Wicked: The Life and Times of the Wicked Witch of the North (Maguire) 295

widdershins 362

Widow’s Broom, The (Allsburg) 688

Wilcock, John 110

Wild Hunt 54, 195, 201, 219, 220, 223, 244–5, 246, 362–3, 390, 391, 392, 404, 406, 409, 568, 578, 580, 654

Wild Swans, The 172, 484–5

Wilde, Oscar 469, 576, 577

will o’ the wisps 679

William Rufus 660

William the Conqueror 660

Williams, Abigail 282, 782

Williamson, Cecil 678, 734, 768, 769–70, 774, 789

Willibrord 181

willow 182–3, 679

Wilson, Monique (Lady Olwen) 714, 715, 734

Windsor witches 789

winter solstice 103, 175, 204, 217, 221, 362, 526, 580, 715

witch

      archetypal 3

      definitions 1–2, 13

      as insult 6

      meanings 2–5

      power of 855

      telltale clues 12

Witch, The (Middleton) 292

Witch: The Wild Ride from Wicked to Wicca 4

witch boards 614–16

witch-cat tales 498

Witch Hammer (film) 271–2

Witch Hammer (Kaplicky) 295–6

Witch Hunter Robin 299

Witch’s Brew 525

witch’s butter 525

witch’s egg 525

Witch’s Ladder 692

witch’s mark 830

witch’s supper 527

witch’s tit 830

Witchcraft Act, England

      (1562)788

      (1604) 789, 791, 821

      (1736)793–4

      repeal (1951) 109, 294, 678, 732, 734, 794, 795

Witchcraft Act, Ireland (1586) 810

      repealed (1821) 812

Witchcraft Act, Scotland (1563)818

witchcraft

      author’s perceptions 10–11

      definitions 5, 13

      elements of 14–33

      and fun 9

      and healing 7, 605

      and knowledge 8–9

      and magic 5

      and misogyny 6–7

      operative vs. ritual 6

      primal 8

      and religion 5–6

      roots of 15

Witchcraft Museum, Boscastle 769, 770

Witchcraft Through the Ages 262

Witchcraft Today (Gardner) 109, 705, 714, 734

witchcraze 4–5, 6, 146, 251–2, 355, 452–3, 771–847

      bats 39–40

      black pig offerings 84

      book burning 112, 114, 124, 136

      cat-witch association 47–8, 49, 70

      conspiracy theory 123

      decimation of fortune-telling 624

      decimation of midwifery 624

      demonic cat lovers 45

      devil-worship 549, 563–4

      Diana-witchcraft association 381, 382

      divination 604

      documentary 256

      dying curses 849

      and ergot poisoning 427

      familiars 58, 62, 67

      flying ointments 693–4

      and Faust legend 282–3

      in film 257–8, 262, 266–7, 269, 271–2

      high art imagery 316

      illusion/magic split 265

      in literature 281–2, 289, 295–6

      midwives 623, 832–3, 837–8

      nettle shirts 172

      popular imagery 315

      procedure 813–16

      Saint John’s wort 179

      Satan-dog association 55

      Satan–goat association 44, 242, 549, 562

      sleeping spells 69

      torture 140, 143–4, 458, 774, 791-2, 800, 806–7, 827–30

      transformation 98

      trials involving fairies 459–60, 462

      vulnerability of hags 529

      witch haunts 644–5

      witch-healer association 604–5

      witch-hunt books 138–46

      witch-hunters sabbats 351, 214–17

      witch stereotypes 9, 22

      witch’s food 500

      witches despising salt 523 see also individual countries

witch-doctor 364

Witches (comic book series) 234

Witches’ Almanac, The 110, 258

Witches’ Brew 272

Witches’ Caves of Zugarramurdi 677

witches’ salt 526

Witching, The 234–5

Witta Wijven 352

wizard 364

Wizard of Oz (film musical) 11, 33, 175, 251, 259, 272–5, 309, 627

Wizard of Oz (Semon film) 274

Woden 219

wolf warriors 102, 430

wolf’s claw 183

wolf-craze 100–1

wolfsbane 184

wolf-shamanism 430

Wolsey, Cardinal 766–7

wolves 100–6, 356, 572

Women’s Liberation Movement 715

women’s mysteries 186, 329, 354, 364,419, 423, 463, 469, 831–47

Wonderful Wizard of Oz, The (Baum) 295, 296–7

worker 364

World Bewitched, The (Bekker) 139

World Mill 635, 642

World Tree (Yggdrasil) 181, 356, 406, 618, 842, 846

World War I 155, 163, 174, 722, 735

World War II 11, 257, 658, 775

“Operation Cone of Power” 733

wormwood 501, 506

      essential oil (Ambroise) 502

Wunekau 90

xorguina 364

xorguinerí 364

XXXHolic 299–300

Yahu (Yahi) 394

Yah-Yah, Dr 770

Takshas 659

Yama-Oba, Yama-Uba 364

Ya-Seong, Ko 299

Yeats, W B. 337, 441, 714, 721

Yemaya 415–16, 620, 680

yidoni 364

yin and yang 24, 347, 683

Ymir 542, 642

yogini 364–5

Yongden, Aphur 725–6

Yoruba 405

      aje 323

      ashe 323

nightjar-witches 44

Yoruba deities see Ogun; orisha; Orisha Oko; Oshun; Oya; Yemaya

Young, Alice 779

Ys 235, 281, 360, 438

Yu the Great 248 Tu Tu Hakusho 300

Yucatan 85, 136

Yule (Yuletide) 217–18, 221–3, 362, 392, 509, 579, 648

Yule cakes 526–7

Yule log 182, 221, 223, 377, 473, 526

Zaltys 92

Zambia 69, 346

Zamora, Antonio de 317

Zande people 614

zar 64, 251, 324, 333, 341, 365, 441

Zarabanda 348, 636

Zatanna, The Magician 235

Zatara, The Magician 235–6

zauberei 365

Zeus 25, 68, 74, 93, 180, 186, 372, 382, 387, 387, 420, 421, 422, 553, 576, 636, 693, 696

Ziarko, I 144

znakhar/znakharka 365

zodiac signs 86, 192, 202, 207, 210, 212, 420, 424, 519, 590–2, 720

      metal affiliations 589

Zohar, The 610–11

zombi 67, 365–6

Zoroaster (Zarathusra) 30, 66, 101

Zoroastrianism 30, 342, 343, 553, 560, 563, 601

Zosimus 587, 589

Zuni people 15

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