Book: Private Empire: ExxonMobil and American Power

Previous: ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
Next: BIBLIOGRAPHY

Notes

 

Private Empire is based primarily on interviews with more than 450 people in the United States and abroad; some agreed to be interviewed multiple times. The interview subjects included current and former ExxonMobil executives, executives at competing corporations, lobbyists, scientists, lawyers, diplomats, military officers, intelligence officers and analysts, government policymakers, former guerrilla leaders, congressional staff, Wall Street analysts, energy industry consultants, environmentalists, and social activists. The narrative also benefited from the release of about eight hundred pages of documents—mainly State Department cables—that were provided to me in response to Freedom of Information Act requests concerning ExxonMobil’s recent activities in Indonesia, Russia, Equatorial Guinea, Chad, and elsewhere in West Africa. The full release of Wikileaks’ collection of State Department cables from 2003 to early 2010 provided additional valuable insights and details, particularly about ExxonMobil’s activity in Chad, Nigeria, and Venezuela. Wikileaks cables—as opposed to those released in response to my F.O.I.A. requests—are indicated below by (W). Court records and trial and deposition transcripts from Exxon Valdez litigation in Alaska; the Jacksonville, Maryland, gasoline spill case Jeff Alban et al. v. Exxon Mobil Corp.; the litigation concerning the corporation’s involvement in the Aceh conflict, John Doe I et al. v. ExxonMobil et al.; and ExxonMobil’s court hearings concerning its operations in Venezuela provided much additional, valuable testimony by ExxonMobil executives, as well as excerpts from corporate documents and e-mails. Documents and diaries shared by former American oil advisers to the Coalition Provisional Authority in Iraq were very helpful. Researchers at the Center for Responsive Politics provided guidance and support for analysis of the center’s important data sets on campaign contributions and lobbying. Investigative files on Equatorial Guinea produced by the Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations of the Committee on Governmental Affairs of the United States Senate provided unique banking and financial records. The extensive investigations into climate science policy carried out by the House Oversight and Government Reform Committee brought forward numerous internal government records. The Union of Concerned Scientists, Greenpeace, and other environmentalist investigators have also obtained and published important government and industry documents on climate policy, from which I was able to draw. Oxfam, Global Witness, Catholic Relief Services, Human Rights Watch, Amnesty International, Coventry Cathedral, and the International Crisis Group have published valuable investigations of conflicts and corporate responsibility issues in Africa and Asia that I sought to explore. Securities and Exchange Commission filings provided extensive data about ExxonMobil’s oil and gas production, reserves, and financial reporting. I am in great debt to the published work of many other reporters, scholars, and international affairs analysts, as the notes that follow reflect.

Many of the interviews for this book were conducted on the record. Where an interview subject spoke on condition that he or she would not be named, the notes provide as much information as possible, consistent with these agreements. On-the-record interviews conducted by researchers who worked with me on the book are indicated by the presence of the researcher’s initials in parentheses following the source information. To conduct interviews and field research, I traveled to Alaska and throughout the United States, as well as to Indonesia, Equatorial Guinea, Chad, Nigeria, Europe, the Middle East, and elsewhere abroad. Other international interviews were carried out by telephone and by local researchers contracted for the purpose.

ExxonMobil authorized eight current executives and managers to provide background interviews and briefings, which were helpful but limited in scope. None of those interview subjects agreed to be quoted by name. The corporation declined other requests for interviews in the United States and abroad. The corporation’s chief executive, Rex Tillerson, declined several requests for interviews. The corporation did provide credentials so that I could attend a number of events where Tillerson spoke and took questions. His predecessor, Lee Raymond, agreed to be interviewed. More than four dozen other current and former ExxonMobil executives, directors, managers, employees, consultants, and contractors also provided interviews. Some of these people spoke without authorization or addressed sensitive subjects and therefore requested anonymity, as the notes reflect.

After the manuscript was substantially drafted, with researcher Haley Cohen, I attempted to fact-check material about current ExxonMobil executives and the corporation by submitting memoranda totaling more than one hundred pages to ExxonMobil’s public affairs department. Two current executives responded initially to fact-checking questions, but ultimately, spokesman Alan Jeffers said ExxonMobil would offer no additional response to the fact-checking questions. The corporation was the only party of the dozens reached during the fact-checking process that declined to participate. I also submitted to ExxonMobil for formal comment sixteen questions concerning controversies, lawsuits, and other matters. The corporation declined to reply to all of these questions except one, concerning 2008 contributions by ExxonMobil executives to the campaign committee of Representative Joe Barton (R-Texas), as is reflected in chapter 22.

The chapter-by-chapter notes below provide the sources for quotations, numbers, and narrative incidents recounted in this book.

PROLOGUE: “I’M GOING TO THE WHITE HOUSE ON THIS”

 

Joseph Hazelwood descended: Keeble, Out of the Channel, p. 41. Yearbook motto, I.Q. score, Stonewall Jackson, and Oscar Wilde: Coyle, Outside, October 1997. Coyle’s extraordinary profile of Hazelwood is the best single published source on the former captain’s life and on the impact of the grounding on him; Hazelwood’s trial testimony is also bracingly direct.

“midlife crisis”: Joseph Hazelwood’s trial testimony, Baker v. Exxon, No. 04.35182, United States Court of Appeals, May 10, 1994. “detected . . . take care of it”: Ibid. Ordering beer: John Donvan et al., Turning Point, ABC News, June 15, 1994. The ABC News documentary is an exceptional work of television journalism. Also, Deposition of Lee R. Raymond, United States District Court for the District of Alaska, A-89-095, November 19, 1992. Two or three vodkas: Coyle, op. cit. When Coyle interviewed Joseph Hazelwood extensively in 1997, Hazelwood was employed at a maritime marine insurer in New York and said he had given up alcohol. In 1994, he testified at trial that “the last drink I recall having is March 23, 1989.”

Salary: Joseph Hazelwood trial testimony, Baker v. Exxon, May 11, 1994. B.P. field party: Roderick, Crude Dreams, p. 124. July 28, 1977: Ibid., p. 417.

1,264,155 barrels: There are several published estimates of the ship’s load, all within a fairly narrow range. This is the number published by the Alaska Resources Library and Information Services. More than one hundred times: ABC News, op. cit.

Author’s visit to Prince William Sound, June 2010. Every four seconds: Coyle, op. cit. “Judging . . . over”: ABC News, op. cit.

Coffee break: Ibid. Radar, blood tests: Keeble, op. cit., p. 43.

Quotations from Gregory Cousins’s trial testimony: Keeble, ibid., p. 44.

“Wasn’t a compelling reason”: Coyle, op. cit.

For a thorough reconstruction of what occurred on the bridge, drawn from trial testimony and testimony before the National Transportation Safety Board, see Keeble, op. cit., pp. 45–47. “Serious trouble”: From Cousins’s testimony, Coyle, op. cit.

“Vessel . . . fucked”: Keeble, op. cit., p. 48. Vomited, “breadbasket . . . an end”: Joseph Hazelwood’s trial testimony, Baker v. Exxon, op. cit. “We fetched up . . . a while”: ABC News, op. cit.

“I’ve got . . . heart attack”: Steve McCall oral history, in Bushell and Jones, The Spill, p. 47. “You could . . . the crew”: Mark Delozier oral history, ibid., p. 29.

“may have . . . with it”: Steve Cowper oral history, ibid., p. 41. “The game rules . . . previously”: Keeble, op. cit., p. 51. Exxon employment cuts: New York Times, April 2, 1989. Profits per employee in 1987: BusinessWeek, July 18, 1988. For N.T.S.B.’s assessment of Exxon’s culpability, see the letter of its chairman, James Kolstad, to Exxon’s chairman, Lawrence Rawl, September 18, 1990. The N.T.S.B. found that Cousins was working on too little sleep because of crew scheduling and that “evidence indicated that watch-keeping safeguards . . . had been compromised because of the manning level” aboard the tanker. See also, “Grounding of U.S. Tankship Exxon Valdez on Bligh Reef, Prince William Sound Near Valdez, AK, March 24, 1989,” N.T.S.B. Report no. MAR-90-04.

“It was hard . . . unmanageable”: Don Cornett oral history, in Bushnell and Jones, op. cit., p. 98. Transcripts of telephone recordings from the Alyeska Emergency Center, from 4:57 a.m. on March 24, 1989, and on March 26, 1989: Transcribed by the Alaska Resources Library and Information Services. Cornett worked on Exxon’s public relations challenges stemming from the spill for the next seven years. Despite his initial enthusiasm for the Valdez media battle, he later reflected that “this was not a job that any sane person would ever seek.”

“Chagrined . . . for Exxon”: Trial testimony of Lee Raymond, In Re Exxon Valdez Oil Spill, August 25, 1994.

Dennis Kelso oral history, in Bushnell and Jones, op. cit., p. 62.

Senior Coast Guard officer: Interview with Admiral Paul Yost. “a lot of cleanup equipment . . . oil spill specialist”: New York Times, April 2, 1989. “There is . . . opposed”: Raymond deposition testimony, op. cit., November 19, 1992.

Ibid.

All quotations from Admiral Paul Yost oral history, Bushnell and Jones in op. cit., pp. 124–127, and from an interview with Yost.

Transcript, The MacNeil/Lehrer NewsHour, July 27, 1989.

“didn’t get along . . . Go ahead”: Admiral Paul Yost oral history, in Bushnell and Jones, op. cit.

Ibid.

Keeble, op. cit., p. 186.

“no matter . . . envisioned”: Lee Raymond deposition testimony, op. cit.

All John Browne quotations and biography citations: Browne, Beyond Business. Valdez episode, Browne’s flight and reflections: Ibid., p. 39. “That oil company was now Exxon”: Ibid., p. 40.

“A Conversation with Lee Raymond,” Charlie Rose PBS, May 6, 2004.

CHAPTER ONE: “ONE RIGHT ANSWER”

 

Associated Press, April 30, 1992; New York Times, May 1, 1992.

United States of America v. Arthur D. Seale and United States of America v. Irene J. Seale, findings of the United States Court of Appeals, Third Circuit, 20 F.3d 1279 decided April 7, 1994. “This tragic allegation”: New York Times, May 8, 1992.

“Wherever he is”: New York Times, May 11, 1992. “If you interfere . . . soldiers in war”: New York Times, July 24, 1992.

New York Times, June 20, 1992. United States v. Arthur D. Seale, op. cit.

Interview with Lee Raymond.

Arthur and Irene Seale biography: New York Times, June 21, 1992; June 28, 1992; and July 1, 1992.

Surveillance, kidnapping, shooting: United States v. Arthur D. Seale, op. cit. “More like a closet”: Arthur Seale’s interview with ABC News, released November 12, 1992.

Deposition of Lee Raymond, United States District Court for the District of Alaska, A-89-095, November 19, 1992.

Interview with Lee Raymond.

New safety regime, Raymond Rule: Ibid. Joseph R. Carlon: Interview with a former Exxon manager involved with corporate security.

Prizes: Interview with a twenty-eight-year retired Exxon manager. “If we have a whole lot of paper cuts”: Glenn Murray, Exxon corporate safety program manager, in the Dallas Morning News, June 20, 2010.

Interview with former managers. Africa: “Electronic Monitoring of Driving Safety Performance,” Esso Exploration & Production Chad/Cameroon Development, Project Update no. 23, p. 23.

“The only way”: Fair Disclosure, transcript, ExxonMobil Corporation Analyst Meeting, March 4, 2003.

All quotations, “Operations Integrity Management System,” www.exxonmobil.com, examined and typed, June 24, 2010.

Interview with an Exxon executive.

Interview with Kathleen Cooper.

Author’s visits to Irving, Texas, 2008–2009. “God Pod” and “Death Star”: Interviews with former Exxon employees.

Tarbell, The History of the Standard Oil Company, p. 274.

Exxon’s relative size: Trial testimony of Lee Raymond, In re Exxon Valdez Oil Spill, August 25, 1994.

“Lots of wrong ways”: Interview with Ed Chow. “prickly as partners”: Interview with a competing executive. “Fundamentals”: Interview with Lee Raymond.

Interviews with two former ExxonMobil managers.

“You could have . . . before it stops”: Interview with an executive familiar with the New York office. $477 million: New York Times, April 2, 1989.

Interview with an executive who served as a director of the corporation during the Lee Raymond era.

Ibid.

Executives noticed a process analogous to natural selection: Interview with an Exxon executive. “dog eat dog”: New York Times, May 9, 1982.

“You don’t like them . . . in the room”: Interview with a Washington-based executive at a competing firm.

Fortune 500 rankings from 1996: http://money.cnn.com/magazines/fortune/fortune500_archive/full/1996/.

“What you’re hearing . . . focus”: “Presentations and Q&A Session,” ExxonMobil Corporation Analyst Meeting, March 9, 2005.

“Exxon’s attitude . . . hope not”: Interview with a U.S.-based competing executive. “strong corporate culture”: Rockefeller family members’ press conference, April 30, 2008. “Self-referential . . . not good citizens”: Interview with Robert Monks. (BVH). “It doesn’t take you”: Interview with a former White House official.

“We don’t run this company . . . principles”: Interview with Fadel Gheit, a longtime energy industry analyst at the investment firm Oppenheimer & Co. “relentless pursuit of efficiency”: Forbes, April 21, 1997.

CHAPTER TWO: “IRON ASS”

 

Aircraft, flight operations: Affidavits of Patricia W. Andrews, Charles W. Cone, and James W. Johnson, Equal Employment Opportunity Commission v. ExxonMobil Corporation, 30-6-cv-1732-K, United States District Court, Northern District of Texas. Aviation Services operations, what Raymond said about Charlene: Interviews with former ExxonMobil employees.

Interviews with former ExxonMobil employees, California and Arizona property records.

Interviews with former ExxonMobil employees.

Interview with a party guest and Exxon employee.

“I can envision”: Interview with a former ExxonMobil employee.

“out-Rawling Rawl”: BusinessWeek, April 2, 1990.

“Crude oil . . . around here”: Interview with Lee Raymond.

Solar panels: New York Times, August 9, 1981. Clifton Garvin regretted his experiment with alternative energy: “I’ve got a backyard full of these damn collectors, and they look like hell. . . . The thing works great when the sun shines, but you’d be amazed at how much the sun’s not out around here.”

“Patience pills”: Interview with Peter Townsend.

“I don’t think Mickey”: Fair Disclosure transcript, ExxonMobil Corporation Analyst Meeting, March 4, 2003.

Interview with Lee Raymond.

Exxon Corporation, Securities and Exchange Commission, Form 10-K405, for the fiscal year ended December 31, 1997, and Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 1973. The numbers used reflect worldwide oil liquids and liquid natural gas production. If other natural gas production were included on an oil-equivalent basis, the numbers in each year would be higher, but the basic portrait of shrinkage would remain.

Interview with Lee Raymond.

Exxon Form 10-K405, March 18, 1998; “Exxon Replaces 121% of Production in 1997,” M2 PressWire, February 5, 1998. These observations draw on Steve LeVine’s groundbreaking research into the differences between reserves reported by Exxon in 10-K filings and those reported in its annual press releases about reserve replacement.

As quoted in Securities and Exchange Commission RIN 3235-AK00, “Concept Release on Possible Revisions to the Disclosure Requirements to Oil and Gas Reserves,” December 12, 2007.

Interview with Fadel Gheit.

Browne, Beyond Business, p. 69.

Geographical distributions of proved reserves are as of December 31, 1998, as described in Securities and Exchange Commission 10-K forms filed by Exxon, Mobil, Chevron, BP, and Shell.

Browne, op. cit.

“We need to face . . . they’re done”: Transcript of Exxon-Mobil merger press conference, December 1, 1998. “Worried . . . geologically”: New York Times, November 16, 2008.

Browne, op. cit., p. 70.

“Oil Markets: The Dynamics of Structural and Financial Change,” Edward L. Morse, PowerPoint presentation, Columbia University, September 2008.

“Maybe we should . . . other things”: New York Times, December 2, 1998. “Guess who . . . massive anxiety”: Interview with a senior executive involved. “Could smoke . . . broken a dam”: Browne, op. cit., pp. 70–72.

Interview with a senior executive involved in the merger discussions.

Ibid.

International Oil Daily, May 25, 2005.

Financial Times, August 21, 2011.

Interview with a former Exxon employee involved.

Browne, op. cit., p. 72.

“the proverbial”: Washington Post, December 2, 1998. “Competition . . . changes”: Merger press conference transcript, December 1, 1998.

Ranked forty-fifth as an economic entity: “World Investment Report 2002: Transnational Corporations and Export Competitiveness,” United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, 2002, p. 104. G.D.P. figures from International Monetary Fund, World Economic Outlook database, September 2002. “economy of scale”: Interview with Lee Raymond. “It’s a great time”: BusinessWeek, April 9, 2001.

CHAPTER THREE: “IS THE EARTH REALLY WARMING?”

 

“Conversation with Lee Raymond,” Charlie Rose, PBS, May 6, 2004.

Center for Responsive Politics, OpenSecrets.org database.

Interview with an energy industry executive.

Interview with Joseph A. Gillan.

Federal disclosure filings collated by OpenSecrets.org.

“when they come”: Interview with an Exxon executive.

Interviews with individuals familiar with ExxonMobil’s lobbying.

From “This is what the corporation believes” to “don’t do it very well”: quotations from interviews with Republicans and oil industry officials in Washington.

Interview with Lee Raymond.

Dressler and Parson, The Science and Politics of Global Climate Change, p. 51.

“No reason . . . too late”: “Carbon Dioxide and Climate: A Scientific Assessment,” p. viii.

“Embrace the uncertainty”: Wall Street Journal, June 15, 2005. After the I.P.C.C. shared the Nobel Peace Prize with Vice President Al Gore in 2007, Exxon executives remarked sardonically that because their scientists had participated in the assessments, the corporation could now claim that it shared a Nobel for its global warming endeavors.

Wall Street Journal, June 15, 2005.

Hansen et al., “Global Climate Changes as Forecast by Goddard Institute for Space Studies Three-Dimensional Model,” August 20, 1988.

“IPCC Second Assessment: Climate Change 1995,” p. 5.

Lee Raymond, Plenary Address, Fifteenth World Petroleum Congress.

“eight hundred . . . anything else”: Ibid. Cooney: Deposition of Philip Cooney, U.S. House of Representatives, Committee on Oversight and Government Reform, March 12, 2007.

“the most effective”: Interview with Kert Davies (BVH). “the promotion”: Cooney deposition, op. cit.

“Global Climate Science Communications Action Plan,” April 3, 1998. Cited in “Political Interference with Climate Change Science,” House Committee on Oversight, op. cit.

Greenpeace database, citing Exxon Education Foundation Dimensions 1998 report and the ExxonMobil Foundation’s Internal Revenue Service filing for 2000.

All shareholder meeting quotations: “Excerpts from the May 31, 2000, ExxonMobil Annual General Meeting,” transcript produced by Campaign ExxonMobil. “If the data were compelling . . . No?”: “A Conversation with Lee Raymond,” op. cit., November 8, 2005.

All George W. Bush quotations from transcripts of the presidential debate at Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, North Carolina, October 11, 2000.

Interview with Artistides Patrinos.

Ibid.

Haley Barbour memo first reported in the Los Angeles Times, August 26, 2001. Christine Todd Whitman and Paul O’Neill: Suskind, The Price of Loyalty, p. 123.

Randy Randol memo released in response to a Freedom of Information Act request made by nongovernmental organizations.

CHAPTER FOUR: “DO YOU REALLY WANT US AS AN ENEMY?”

 

“So must ExxonMobil” and “very close to closing down”: Jakarta to Washington, March 7, 2001. The author obtained this and other State Department cables and documents cited in this chapter, except where otherwise noted, through a Freedom of Information Act request.

About a fifth of worldwide upstream revenue: Estimate derived from interviews with analysts and ExxonMobil’s investor information department. Profits in 1998, 1999, and 2000: ExxonMobil’s estimates provided in discovery, cited in Plaintiff’s Memorandum, July 18, 2008, John Doe I et al. v. ExxonMobil Corporation et al., 01-1357 (LFO) United States District Court for the District of Columbia. Government of Indonesia’s take was $1.2 billion: Jakarta to Washington, March 12, 2001. Indonesia’s oil and gas revenue was about $5 billion; its government revenue before International Monetary Fund loans and other international aid was about $19 billion.

“A quixotic . . . exaggeration” and “circulating . . . diplomacy”: William Nessen, “Sentiments Made Visible: The Rise and Reason of Aceh’s National Liberation Movement,” in Reid, Verandah of Violence.

Lost contract to Bechtel: Kristen E. Schulze, “Insurgency and the Counter-Insurgency: Strategy in the Aceh Conflict, October 1976–May 2004,” in Reid, ibid. Doral Inc.: Interview with Nezar Patria. “lived long enough” and “mid-life crisis”: Nessen, in Reid, op. cit.

Declaration of independence: Nezar Patria, “Islam and Nationalism in the Free Aceh Movement, 1976–2005,” International History Department, London School of Economics. “foreign oil companies . . . immediately”: Schulze, in Reid, op. cit. “They have Mobil Oil . . . support us”: Interview with Nezar Patria.

Jakarta to Washington, March 12, 2001.

Ransom of $100,000, “heightened concern”: Jakarta to Washington, March 7, 2001. Newspaper advertisement proposal, “not advisable”: Jakarta to Washington, February 23, 2001.

Jakarta to Washington, March 9, 2001.

Interview with Robert Gelbard (HC).

“We’ll know it”: Jakarta to Washington, March 14, 2001.

Jakarta to Washington, March 8, 2001.

Interview with Ifdhal Kasim.

BusinessWeek, December 28, 1998.

Ibid.

“confusion and ambivalence”: Interview with Agus Widjojo.

State Department findings: 2000 Country Reports on Human Rights, www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2000/eap/707.htm. “The companies . . . dilemma in Aceh”: Jakarta to Washington, July 7, 1999, obtained by the author from a source.

Voluntary Principles on Security and Human Rights: www.state.gov.www/global/human_rights/001220_fsdrl_principles.html.

“They just didn’t see the relevance”: Interview with Arvind Ganesan. “We don’t sign on”: Interview with an ExxonMobil executive.

All quotations from ExxonMobil internal documents from excerpts cited in Memorandum & Opinion, August 27, 2008, and Plaintiff’s Memorandum, July 18, 2008, John Doe I v. ExxonMobil, op. cit.

Plaintiff’s Memorandum, ibid.

Interviews with individuals familiar with ExxonMobil’s Global Security department. Also, declarations of Ron Wilson, John Alan Connor, Michael Farmer, Robert Haines, and Lance Johnson, John Doe I v. ExxonMobil, op. cit.

“nothing as dramatic,” “physical safety”: Interview with an individual involved with the issues in Aceh. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act dilemma and reviews: Interview with another individual involved.

Memorandum & Opinion, op. cit.

“Ludicrous”: Interview with an individual involved. “deployment . . . security affairs”: Memorandum & Opinion, op. cit.

Mike Farmer: Excerpts from his deposition, Memorandum & Opinion, ibid. Document quotations: Ibid., and the Plaintiff’s Memorandum, op. cit.

“Such a formal move”: Abuja to Washington, August 12, 2003 (W). Other quotations from interviews with two individuals involved.

All quotations from Colin Powell-Alwi Shihab meeting: Secretary of state to Jakarta, March 16, 2001.

Robert Haines, Karen Brooks, and Skip Boyce: Interviews with individuals familiar with the discussions. All quotations from Ron Wilson-Luhut Pandjaitan meeting: Jakarta to Washington, March 19, 2001.

Interview with Robert Gelbard (HC).

All quotations from the Banda Aceh meeting: Jakarta to Washington, April 12, 2001.

“seemed to support . . . burials”: Interview with Nordin Abdul Rahman. “ExxonMobil land . . . unacceptable”: Interview with Munawar Zainal.

Interview with Robert Gelbard (HC).

All quotations from Skip Boyce’s meetings in Banda Aceh: Jakarta to Washington, April 26, 2001.

Stockholm to Washington, June 11, 2001.

Jakarta to Washington, June 19, 2001.

Jakarta to Washington, August 23, 2001.

Jakarta to Washington, July 11, 2001.

Interview with Terry Collingsworth (BVH).

Complaint, John Doe I v. ExxonMobil, op. cit.

CHAPTER FIVE: “UNKNOWN INJURY”

 

Interview with Mandy Lindeberg. Design of Lindeberg’s study: “Estimate of Oil Persisting on the Beaches of Prince William Sound 12 Years After the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill,” Environmental Science and Technology, 2004.

Interviews with Auke Bay scientists and ExxonMobil consultant David Page (MR).

Agreement and Consent Decree, October 9, 1991. State of Alaska v. Exxon Corporation, and United States of America v. Exxon Corporation, A91-082 CIV and A91-083 CIV.

Interview with Jeffrey Short.

Ibid. See also, “Petroleum Hydrocarbons in Caged Mussels Deployed in Prince William Sound After the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill,” American Fisheries Society Symposium, 1996.

Salmon study: “Sensitivity of Fish Embryos to Weathered Crude Oil: Part II. Increased Mortality of Pink Salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) Embryos Incubating Downstream from Weathered Exxon Valdez Oil,” Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 1999. Damage to fish hearts, future research, single-generation effects: Interviews with Jeffrey Short and Stanley “Jeep” Rice. Financial damages: Interview with Craig Tillery, deputy attorney general, state of Alaska (MR).

All quotations, interview with Jeffrey Short.

Ibid.

“PCB Exposure in Sea Otters and Harlequin Ducks in Relation to History of Contamination by the Exxon Valdez Spill,” Marine Pollution Bulletin, June 2010. Interview with Jeep Rice.

Interviews with Peter Hagen, Jeffrey Short, Jeep Rice, and Mandy Lindeberg.

Anchorage Daily News, January 31, 2002.

Interview with Jeffrey Short.

Interview with David Page (MR).

All quotations from interviews with Jeffrey Short and David Page (MR).

Ibid.

CHAPTER SIX: “E.G. MONTH!”

 

Interview with Frank Ruddy.

This summary is drawn from three overlapping accounts of Equatorial Guinea’s short, brutal history: Roberts, The End of Oil; Ghazvinian, Untapped; and Maass, Crude World.

Quotations and details: Len Shurtleff, “A Foreign Service Murder,” Foreign Service Journal, October 2007.

10 percent: Teodoro Obiang Nguema quoted in SecState to Yaounde, September 14, 2001. Except where indicated, the author obtained the State cables quoted in this chapter through a Freedom of Information Act request.

Roberts, op. cit.; Ghazvinian, op. cit.; and Maass, op. cit.

Interview with Teodoro Obiang Nguema.

Interview with Frank Ruddy.

“Thanks”: Interview with Teodoro Obiang Nguema. That Juan Olo negotiated without bankers or lawyers: Interview with an adviser to Obiang.

Documents, including extensive internal Riggs memos and e-mails, obtained and published by the Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations, Committee on Governmental Affairs, United States Senate, July 15, 2004. Hereafter “Riggs documents.”

Yaounde to Washington, July 13, 1999, obtained by the author.

Abuja to Washington, September 9, 2005 (W).

“We should put”: Interview with the adviser to Obiang. Five thousand dollars: Riggs documents, op. cit.

Riggs documents, ibid.

SecState to Monrovia, February 24, 2001; Yaounde to Washington, March 2, 2001.

SecState to Yaounde, March 2 and March 16, 2001.

SecState to Yaounde, March 16, 2001. Africa Global appears to have wound down its operations. Calls to a Louisiana public affairs firm that manages the name plate on its Web site were not returned.

All quotations, SecState to Yaounde, April 12, 2001.

Ibid. Also SecState to Madrid, July 27, 2001.

All quotations, SecState to Yaounde, September 14, 2001.

Yaounde to Washington, October 28, 2002.

Yaounde to Washington, January 30, 2003.

All quotations, Yaounde to Washington, January 29, 2002.

Ibid.

Wall Street Journal, January 10, 2006.

Up to $3 million in cash; “The president . . . P.R. firm”: Riggs documents, op. cit.

Riggs documents. Plane features: Roberts, The Wonga Coup.

CHAPTER SEVEN: “THE CAMEL AND THE JACKAL”

 

“Poor to non-existent . . . corruption”: N’djamena to Washington, February 8, 2006, from a State Department cable released to the author in response to a Freedom of Information Act request. All other quotations from Christopher Goldthwait’s collection of letters, which were made available to the author by Ambassador Goldthwait. Hereafter “Goldthwait letters.”

Fifteen hundred doctoral degree holders: Fortune, April 16, 2001. Chari floodplain: ExxonMobil PowerPoint slides, released by Esso Chad. Upstream skills groups and reorganization: Interview with a former ExxonMobil scientist.

“Visit of Chad President,” State Department Bulletin, 1987.

English translation of the 1988 convention made available to the author by Ian Gary. “You don’t have time . . . he wanted”: Interview with Salibou Garba.

Rosemarie Forsythe as prodigy: LeVine, The Oil and the Glory, p. 211. Forsythe’s role: Interviews with oil industry and former Clinton administration officials. April planning exercise: Interviews with ExxonMobil executives.

Interviews with ExxonMobil executives, ibid.

“The good Lord didn’t see fit”: Dick Cheney, Cato Institute, June 23, 1998. Simeon Moats: Interviews with former government and intelligence officials who consulted with Moats after he joined ExxonMobil. Hank Cohen and quotations: Interview with Hank Cohen.

All Tom Walters quotations: Testimony Before House Subcommittee on Africa, April 18, 2002. Rex Tillerson quotation: New York Times, May 16, 2001.

“The notion . . . go down well”: Skjærseth, “ExxonMobil: Tiger or Turtle?” “The biggest thing . . . comfortable”: BusinessWeek, April 9, 2001.

Remarks at “The Politics of Development and Security in Africa’s Oil States,” Johns Hopkins University School for Advanced International Studies, April 2, 2009.

For a thorough account of the World Bank plan, see Gary and Reisch, “Chad’s Oil: Miracle or Mirage,” Catholic Relief Services.

Philippe Le Billon: Remarks at “The Politics of Development and Security,” op. cit. “The Chadians came in”: Interview with an industry security executive. “There were regular . . . the abuses”: N’djamena to Washington, July 6, 1999 (cable obtained by the author from a confidential source).

Remarks at “The Politics of Development and Security,” op. cit.

“The oil project . . . pristine poverty”: Testimony by Donald Norland before House Subcommittee on Africa, op. cit.

Author’s correspondence with Hassaballah Soubiane, translated from his original French.

Ibid.

Lawrence Summers’s letter of August 14, 2000, made available by Ian Gary.

N’djamena to Washington, July 6, 1999.

All quotations, Goldthwait letters, op. cit.

Ibid.

Harry Longwell: Fortune, April 16, 2001; Gary and Reisch, op. cit.

Interviews with two individuals familiar with the N’djamena station.

Ibid.

Interview with Karen Kwiatkowski (BVH).

National Intelligence Council: “Global Trends 2015,” http://www.dni.gov/nic/NIC_globaltrend2015.html. Walter Kansteiner: From author’s transcription of the conference.

Quotation from author’s interviews with a U.S. official involved.

Interview with Salibou Garba.

All quotations from Goldthwait letters, op. cit.

“Snapshot Summary,” Esso Exploration & Production Chad, Inc., Chad Export Project Update no. 13, 2003.

CHAPTER EIGHT: “WE TARGET OIL COMPANIES”

 

Frank Sprow; all biographical details and quotes: Interview with Frank Sprow.

ExxonMobil’s $100 million contribution: ExxonMobil Web site, examined and typed.

All quotations, interview with Kert Davies.

Ibid.

Ibid.

Letter and memo to John H. Marburger, assistant to the president for science and technology, from Brian P. Flannery, March 18, 2002.

The ExxonMobil Foundation.

Oreskes, “Behind the Ivory Tower.”

Dressler and Parson, The Science and Politics of Global Climate Change, p. 3.

Details of the raid: “Greenpeace Unlawful Entry to ExxonMobil Corporation Headquarters,” letter from Kenneth P. Cohen to Lon Burnam, July 1, 2004; Associated Press, May 27, 2003; Fort Worth Star-Telegram, May 28, 2003. Tom Cirigliano: Dallas Morning News, May 28, 2003.

Public Interest Watch: Form 990, August 1, 2003.

New York Times, April 19, 2004.

Securities and Exchange Commission, “Concept Release on Possible Revisions to the Disclosure Requirements Relating to Oil and Gas Reserves,” December 12, 2007.

“This marks the tenth year”: “ExxonMobil Replaces Production for Tenth Year in a Row,” February 18, 2004, press release. “Continued high-quality additions”: “ExxonMobil Replaces Production for Ninth Year in a Row,” January 28, 2003, press release.

“A well-established”: ExxonMobil Form 10-K, February 28, 2007. Also, interviews with managers and executives who participated in the reserve counting system.

Interview with an executive involved with the process. Interview with Mark Gilman.

ExxonMobil 10-K filings and annual press releases, op. cit.

Steve LeVine, ForeignPolicy.com, February 16, 2011.

CHAPTER NINE: “REAL MEN—THEY DISCOVER OIL”

 

Interview with Lee Raymond.

Arbogast, Resisting Corporate Corruption; Time, July 28, 1975.

Forbes, August 5, 2009.

Interview with Lee Raymond.

“Liquefied Natural Gas: Understanding the Basic Facts,” Department of Energy, August 2005.

“Balancing Natural Gas Policy: Fueling the Demands of a Growing Economy,” National Petroleum Council, September 25, 2003. http://fossil.energy.gov/programs/oilgas/publications/npc/03gasstudy/npcgas03_preface.pdf.

Reuters, June 21, 2005.

Coll, Ghost Wars, p. 398.

New York Times, December 2, 1998. “sour lemon”: Author’s interview with a person who attended.

“I have to say . . . more talks”: BusinessWeek, July 14, 1975.

Bloomberg, April 3, 2011.

Course of gas negotiations: Interviews with individuals familiar with the Saudi gas project.

Details about the Al-Hamra attack: National Association for Business Economics, May 15, 2003; Los Angeles Times, May 17, 2003.

Interview with Lee Raymond.

Ibid.

The causes of the failure of the Saudi negotiations have been reported in the New York Times, June 24, 2002, and the Washington Post, June 6, 2003. Raymond’s outlook, the final meeting with Al-Faisal, and all quotations from interviews with individuals familiar with the negotiations.

All quotations from interviews with executives and directors involved.

Ibid.

Ibid.

CHAPTER TEN: “IT’S NOT QUITE AS BAD AS IT SOUNDS”

 

Interviews with current and former ExxonMobil executives.

Ibid.

Ibid.

Interviews with a former ExxonMobil manager.

Interviews with Lee Raymond.

Interviews with current and former ExxonMobil executives.

“the charm of a con man”: Sidney Jones, writing an obituary in the Independent, May 15, 2003; Jendrzejczyk died at age fifty-three. “meeting over”: Interview with an activist who met with Exxon executives during this period. “We’re doing a great job”: Interview with Arvind Ganesan.

Interview with Arvind Ganesan.

All quotations from “Notes for a Presentation to ExxonMobil,” October 27, 2002, provided to the author.

Interview with Bennett Freeman.

Interview with a former ExxonMobil executive familiar with Lee Raymond’s reaction.

Interview with a former senior BP executive.

Chief Executive, April 2001.

Interviews with ExxonMobil executives.

Chief Executive, op. cit., and Browne, Beyond Business, pp. 197 and 234.

CHAPTER ELEVEN: “THE HAIFA PIPELINE”

 

All quotations from “Post-War Planning,” statement by Douglas J. Feith, Senate Foreign Relations Committee, February 11, 2003. Examined and typed at: http://policy.defense.gov/sections/public_statements/speeches/archive/former_usdp/feith/2003/february_11_03.html. “the fucking stupidest”: Woodward, Plan of Attack, p. 281.

“literally nothing”: Donald Rumsfeld’s remarks during an Infinity Radio call-in program, November 15, 2002, as reported by CBS News. War aims, Douglas Feith statement: Senate Foreign Relations Committee, op. cit.

Daniel Yergin: Washington Post, December 8, 2002.

115 billion barrels of proven reserves: The Energy Information Administration of the U.S. Department of Energy cited this figure in 2007; it attributed the estimate to the Oil & Gas Journal. The E.I.A. noted in its “Country Analysis Brief” for Iraq that the 115-billion-barrel estimate dates to 2001 and was based “largely on 2-D seismic data from nearly three decades ago.” Updated technology may reveal “an estimated additional 45 to 100 billion barrels” of recoverable oil, the E.I.A. said. Iraq’s pre-invasion production hovered around 3 million barrels per day; Iraqi planners believed that figure might be raised to 6 million barrels per day with substantial investment. Saudi Arabia announced plans in 2005 to raise its production capacity to about 12.5 million barrels per day; in 2008, it produced just under 11 million barrels per day.

Interview with Tariq Shafiq.

“We’re not here for the oil”: Interview with an administration official who received the talking points. Paul Bremer quotations: Washington Post, June 23, 2003.

Interview with Philip J. Carroll Jr.

Future of Iraq Project, Oil and Energy Working Group, Subcommittee on Oil Policy, Summary Paper, April 20, 2003, p. 5. A redacted version of the paper was declassified and published by the National Security Archive: http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB198/FOI%20Oil.pdf.

Arile Cohen, and Gerald P. O’Driscoll Jr., “The Road to Economic Prosperity for a Post-Saddam Iraq,” Heritage Foundation Backgrounder no. 1594, September 24, 2002.

“broad-based, mass privatization”: “Moving the Iraqi Economy from Recovery to Sustainable Growth,” U.S.A.I.D., quoted in Chandrasekaran, Imperial Life in the Emerald City, p. 115. “This was part . . . resurfacing”: Interview with an administration official involved in the discussions.

Interviews with Gary Vogler and Michael Makovsky.

Interviews with Gary Vogler, Michael Makovsky, and a third Bush administration official involved.

Philip Carroll would resign: Interview with a former National Security Council official. All quotations: Interview with Carroll.

A copy of the memo was provided to the author by a C.P.A. official other than Philip Carroll.

Feith’s history and thinking about oil security are from interviews with Douglas Feith.

Both quotations from “Some Historical Lessons from the World Oil Market,” Pentagon PowerPoint Briefing, April 28, 2005, provided to the author by Douglas Feith.

Condoleezza Rice, Colin Powell, and Paul Wolfowitz: Interviews with former Bush administration officials, and Michigan Daily, March 30, 2011; Sunday Times (London), March 4, 2011.

Doubled to $18.5 billion: “China, Africa, and Oil,” Council on Foreign Relations Backgrounder, June 6, 2008. $44 billion: Presentation by Bo Kong, at “The Politics of Development and Security in Africa’s Oil States,” Johns Hopkins University School of Advanced International Studies, April 2, 2009.

Interview with a former intelligence official involved in the review.

Interview with David Gordon.

“Some Historical Lessons from the World Oil Market,” op. cit.

Interview with Aaron Friedberg. Interview with David Gordon.

Interview with Aaron Friedberg.

Interview with a Bush administration official.

Interview with a former National Security Council official.

ExxonMobil’s scenario planning, “an element of surge . . . really happen”: Rex Tillerson remarks, “A Conversation on Energy Security,” Council on Foreign Relations, March 9, 2007.

Ibid.

All quotations, “A Conversation with Lee Raymond,” Charlie Rose, PBS, May 6, 2004.

“A Conversation on Energy Security,” op. cit.

CHAPTER TWELVE: “HOW HIGH CAN WE FLY?”

 

“Was fortunate at this critical time” and “transform the relationship”: BBC News, November 15, 2001. “looked the man . . . soul”: BBC News, June 16, 2001.

Don Evans and Vladimir Putin, all quotations: Interviews with former Bush administration officials.

Moscow to Washington, June 3, 2002. The State Department cables relied on for this chapter were obtained by the author through a Freedom of Information Act request.

Early thinking about Russia strategy: Interviews with former Bush administration officials involved. “I think all of us at the senior level”: Interview with Spencer Abraham.

U.S. Energy Information Administration: http://www.eia.doe.gov/pub/oil_gas/petroleum/analysis_publications/oil_market_basics/sup_image_worldprod.htm#Former%20Soviet%20Union. The E.I.A.’s historical estimates of Soviet production do not break out separate figures for Russia, but assuming that non-Russian production was similar in 1988 to what it was immediately after the Soviet breakup, Russia’s peak production would have been about 10 million barrels a day.

Moscow to Washington, June 3, 2002.

Don Evans’s conversations with Russian counterparts: Interviews with former Bush administration officials familiar with the energy dialogue.

All quotations from an interview with Leonard Coburn.

All quotations from an interview with a former ExxonMobil executive involved in the Sakhalin negotiations.

April flight, rehearsing for negotiations with Vladimir Putin: Interviews with ExxonMobil employees. Bush visit timed to coincide with deal announcements with ExxonMobil and Chevron: Moscow to Washington, June 3, 2002, op. cit.

ExxonMobil’s $140 million contract: International Oil Daily, May 23, 2002. Joint Statement: Office of the Press Secretary, White House, May 24, 2002.

Moscow to Washington, June 3, 2002.

The summary of Mikhail Khodorkovsky’s rise is drawn from Goldman, Petrostate, op. cit.; Hoffman, The Oligarchs; and Baker and Glasser, Kremlin Rising.

Interview with Vladimir Milov conducted by Miriam Elder.

Interview with Bruce Misamore.

Ibid.

Ibid.

All quotations, Browne, Beyond Business, p. 145.

Interview with Bruce Misamore.

Washington Post, November 3, 2003.

Library of Congress: Ambassador Alexander Vershbow to Washington, November 7, 2002. Table one at the prayer breakfast: Interviews with former Bush administration officials.

The PowerPoint and a video of Mikhail Khodorkovsky’s presentation are available on the Web site of the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace: http://www.carnegieendowment.org/files/2003-02-07-khodorkovsky-presentation.pdf.

Moscow to Washington, November 7, 2002.

Interview with Bruce Misamore.

Interview with former Bush administration officials involved in the dialogue.

Interview with Bruce Misamore.

Interviews with executives familiar with the negotiations.

All quotations from Mikhail Khodorkovsky’s presentation at the Carnegie Moscow Center seminar on global energy, June 17, 2003, from author’s files.

Interviews with executives familiar with the negotiations.

The author David Hoffman conducted an interview with a Yukos executive in Moscow on July 1, 2003, as the Kremlin began to ratchet up pressure on Mikhail Khodorkovsky; Hoffman generously shared his notes.

Moscow to Washington, July 14, 2003.

All quotations from interviews with an executive familiar with the detailed account of the conversation briefed to ExxonMobil afterward.

All quotations, interview with Bruce Misamore.

Goldman, Petrostate, pp. 111–12, and an interview with a former ExxonMobil executive involved in the negotiations.

Interview with Bruce Misamore.

Interview with Leonard Coburn.

“Absurd . . . enforcement system”: U.S. embassy in Moscow to Washington, October 29, 2003.

Moscow to Washington, October 23, 2003.

Interview with Vladimir Milov conducted by Miriam Elder.

“Everyone ought . . . long-term industry”: Petroleum Intelligence Weekly, November 10, 2003. “There are some things there”: Charlie Rose, PBS, May 6, 2004.

Moscow to Washington, May 14, 2004.

Vladimir Putin’s job offer to Don Evans, the Russian president’s conversation with John Snow, and all quotations from interviews with former Bush administration officials.

CHAPTER THIRTEEN: “ASSISTED REGIME CHANGE”

 

Theresa Whelan’s biography, all quotations: Interview with Theresa Whelan. Deborah Avant, a political science professor at George Washington University, reported a brief summary of some of Whelan’s remarks at the November 19 dinner in written testimony before the House Armed Services Committee, April 25, 2007.

Roberts, The Wonga Coup, p. 79. Roberts’s superb book provides the definitive account of Greg Wales, Simon Mann, and their activities in Equatorial Guinea, and is a foundation of the narrative in this chapter. Wales provided some of the contracts and other documents to Roberts, who was helpful to the author.

Interview with Theresa Whelan.

All quotations, ibid.

Roberts, The Wonga Coup, p. 83. The author’s efforts to locate Greg Wales for comment in Britain and South Africa were unsuccessful.

Reuters, July 8, 2008, from coverage of Simon Mann’s trial in Malabo. Restless in 2003: Roberts, The Wonga Coup, p. 15.

Text of joint appearance: The Guardian, March 17, 2003.

Roberts, The Wonga Coup, pp. 140–41.

“The advance group . . . government”: From a State Department cable declassified in response to the author’s request under the Freedom of Information Act, Yaounde to Washington, March 11, 2004. That cable attributes to Du Toit the assertion, during his appearance before diplomats, that he would “receive $5 million” for his assistance in this plot. Other sources such as Roberts’s The Wonga Coup (p. 76) put the figure at $1 million. Du Toit had been imprisoned for several days in the notorious Black Beach prison at the time he made his statement, but the March 11 cable, approved by U.S. ambassador George Staples, reported that “Du Toit showed no signs of abuse or coercion when relating his story.”

Meetings and quotations from memos and minutes in the Riggs documents (see chapter six, note 9).

Interview with J. R. Dodson.

Ibid.

Roberts, The Wonga Coup, p. 184.

“Problems had arisen”: Yaounde to Washington, September 3, 2004. The cable is based on reporting of Nick du Toit’s trial in Malabo.

Yaounde to Washington, March 11, 2004.

Roberts, The Wonga Coup, pp. 195–99.

Riggs documents, op. cit.

Interview with Teodoro Obiang Nguema, op. cit.

All quotations from interviews with advisers to Teodoro Obiang Nguema.

Interview with Theresa Whelan.

These and all other quotations from the Colin Powell meeting are from SecState to Yaounde, June 26, 2004.

The road map, meetings: Interviews with former Bush administration officials and advisers to Teodoro Obiang Nguema. Talking point quotations: SecState to Yaounde, October 5, 2004.

All quotations from interviews with former Bush administration officials and advisers to Teodoro Obiang Nguema.

Ibid.

Malabo to Washington, March 12, 2009.

“Money Laundering and Foreign Corruption: Enforcement and Effectiveness of the Patriot Act,” hearing of the Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations, United States Senate, July 15, 2004.

CHAPTER FOURTEEN: “INFORMED INFLUENTIALS”

 

Interviews with four former Bush administration officials who worked on energy policy during this period.

Bloom to Hutto, e-mail released under F.O.I.A., April 14, 2005.

All quotations from “ExxonMobil 2005 Media Brief,” Universal/McCann, as referenced in the Union of Concerned Scientists’ 2007 report: “Smoke, Mirrors & Hot Air: How ExxonMobil Uses Big Tobacco’s Tactics to Manufacture Uncertainty on Climate Change.”

“A Conversation with Lee Raymond,” Charlie Rose, PBS, November 8, 2005.

“We cannot forecast the price . . . fundamentals are right”: Interview with Peter Townsend, former chief of investor relations at ExxonMobil. Also, interviews with other ExxonMobil executives. Rex Tillerson continued this forecasting practice; he told Fortune in 2007, “We tell the organization, ‘Folks, we really don’t have a clue what the price of oil is going to be, and so given that, how should we run this business?’”

Interviews with ExxonMobil executives. Also, “The Outlook for Energy: A View to 2030.” ExxonMobil has published revised versions of this forecast each year since 2004; the details of the forecast as it was published and briefed early in 2005 are derived from transcripts of presentations by ExxonMobil executives at that time.

“The Outlook,” ibid., and interviews with ExxonMobil executives.

Independent, February 21, 2005.

Pacala and Socolow, “Stabilization Wedges.” Also, Robert H. Socolow and Stephen Pacala, “A Plan to Keep Carbon in Check,” Scientific American, September 2006.

Oreskes, “Behind the Ivory Tower.”

Freudenburg, “Seeding Science, Courting Conclusions.”

All quotations, ibid.

Lunch, succession, Palm Springs: Interviews with current and former ExxonMobil executives.

Interview with a former ExxonMobil director.

Fortune, September 15, 2003.

Interview with Lee Raymond.

Economist, December 24, 2005.

“Energy Prices and Profits,” U.S. Senate Committee on Commerce, Science and Transportation, and the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources, November 9, 2005.

Associated Press, March 26, 2002; interview with Spencer Abraham.

All quotations from the full “Energy Prices and Profits” hearing record, op. cit.

Abu Dhabi to Washington, September 28, 2005 (W). Abu Dhabi to Washington, February 17, 2003 (W).

“What in the hell”: Interviews with ExxonMobil executives. “Major Outstanding Issues” and “ExxonMobil would prefer”: Abu Dhabi to Washington, November 7, 2005 (W). “Mostly about money”: Abu Dhabi to Washington, September 28, op. cit. “Exxon’s technical”: Abu Dhabi to Washington, November 21, 2005 (W).

“Lee Raymond Retires: The Lessons of History,” brief by Adam Sieminski and Paul Sankey for Deutsche Bank Securities, Inc., December 29, 2005.

ExxonMobil Annual Report, 2005. Interview with Mark Gilman.

Interview with Mark Gilman. Amy Myers Jaffe: “Is Wall Street Quite Wrong When It Comes to Big Oil?” New York Sun, February 10, 2005.

ExxonMobil Annual Report, 2005.

Interviews with former ExxonMobil executives. Estimate of the total retirement package, including restricted stock and options, is from Jad Mouawad, New York Times, April 14, 2006.

CHAPTER FIFTEEN: “ON MY HONOR”

 

Interviews with ExxonMobil executives familiar with the transition planning. “Remains unchanged”: ExxonMobil Corporation Analyst Meeting, New York, March 8, 2006. “It’s true . . . bum rap”: Remarks at the Northwest Texas Council, Boy Scouts of America, 100th Anniversary Dinner, November 11, 2010, in response to a question from Ann O’Hanlon. “Let me assure you”: Dallas Morning News, May 31, 2007.

The author is indebted to the biographical research on Rex Tillerson and his family carried out for this book by S. G. Gwynne. This section draws on and incorporates language drafted by Gwynne in a research memo.

Gwynne, ibid., and research in Wichita Falls by Ann O’Hanlon.

Gwynne, ibid. Fraternity hazing: Author’s interview with a participant. Ayn Rand: Scouting Magazine, September 2008.

Gwynne, op. cit.

Interview with a former ExxonMobil manager.

Fortune, April 30, 2007.

The account of the committee’s appointment and review work is from interviews with five current and former managers involved. ExxonMobil has referred only obliquely to the work in public.

MIT News, May 19, 2009.

Interview with an individual familiar with the K Street office.

Interviews with five current and former managers involved.

“In terms of showing . . . equaled again”: Remarks at the Northwest Texas Council, November 11, 2010, op. cit.

“They have a self-righteousness” and “tobacco industry”: Fortune, April 17, 2006. The author is indebted to Ann O’Hanlon’s thorough review and analysis of oil corporation campaign filings between 2000 and 2008, from which these comparisons are drawn. Walter Buchholtz: Washington Post, September 1, 2004.

Interviews with individuals familiar with the ExxonMobil Washington office.

Theresa Fariello biography: Meridian International Center Board of Directors.

Louis Finkel: New York Times, December 2, 2006.

The account in this section of the Airlie Center Dialogue is drawn from interviews carried out by Ann O’Hanlon with seven participants, as well as e-mails and notes taken during the meetings.

All quotations, ibid.

Ibid.

“U.S. Climate Change Policy,” e-mail from Kenneth P. Cohen, January 11, 2007. “We know our climate is changing”: Fortune, April 30, 2007.

“ExxonMobil’s Top Executives on Climate-Change Policy,” euractiv.com, February 14, 2007. This extensive interview with Cohen and Stuewer provides a very thorough account of the policy and communication strategy that emerged from the 2006 climate policy work.

CHAPTER SIXTEEN: “CHAD CAN LIVE WITHOUT OIL”

 

368 wells in 2006: “Chad/Cameroon Development Project, Project Update no. 21, 2006,” Esso Exploration & Production Chad, Inc. Landscape: Author’s travel to southern Chad. Rules, Guantánamo, entombed: Interviews with employees and other individuals familiar with ExxonMobil’s operations in Chad. Twelve thousand square miles, nine camps, 450 oil production sites: N’djamena to Washington, June 5, 2007 (W).

N’djamena to Washington, ibid.

Author’s travel and local interviews. About 2,500 security guards: Interviews with two executives at a company involved in the security operations.

Ibid.; N’djamena to Washington, op. cit.

Interviews with U.S. officials and other individuals familiar with ExxonMobil’s operations in Chad. PowerPoint slides: “Benefits to USA from Chadian Crude Oil Operations,” circa 2008.

Land payments, price rises, micro lending: Interviews with Catholic Church monitors in Doba who were involved with the World Bank’s micro lending project. Wages skimmed, settlement: Interviews with Doukam Ngartandoh and Djim Ngaro Michel of the Association for the Defense of the Interests of Former Esso Workers, in Doba. “Regarded as a model”: N’djamena to Washington, February, 8, 2010 (W). “The influx . . . before the oil”: “Interagency Support on Conflict Assessment and Mission Performance Planning for Chad,” March 20, 2006, courtesy of Ian Gary, Oxfam.

Author’s travel to village and local interviews. N’djamena to Washington, 2007, op. cit.

ExxonMobil demurs when asked for infrastructure support: Interview with Adoum Younousmi, Chad’s minister for national infrastructure. Blaming World Bank: Interviews with ExxonMobil executives.

Interview with Boukinebe Garka.

Flint and De Waal, Darfur: A New History of a Long War, pp. 114–15.

The numbers here are U.S. government estimates of Chad’s defense capabilities, obtained from interviews with U.S. officials who asked not to be further identified.

“Chad/Cameroon Development Project, Project Update no. 24,” 2008, p. 77, Esso Exploration & Production Chad, Inc.

Interview with Mahamat Hissène.

N’djamena to Washington, February 6, 2006 (W).

Paul Wolfowitz’s thinking about Africa, “wasn’t helped . . . failing place it is”: Remarks at American Enterprise Institute, “Does Africa’s Future Depend on Global Financial Institutions?” April 24, 2009. “Chad has a sovereign right”: Wolfowitz described what Déby said to him during their phone call during a conference call with reporters, New York Times, January 7, 2006.

N’djamena to Washington, January 31, 2006 (W).

N’djamena to Washington, February 6, 2006 (W).

N’djamena to Washington, January 9, 2006. This and other cables, as indicated, were released to the author under a Freedom of Information Act request. Some of these cables were written around the same time as cables released by Wikileaks, but are not in that online collection.

N’djamena to Washington, July 12, 2006.

Robert Zoellick telephoned Wolfowitz: Secretary of State to N’djamena, January 19, 2006. The document provides a redacted account of a meeting among Zoellick, other State Department officials, Chad’s foreign minister Ahmad, Allam-mi, and other Chadian officials, January 10, 2006. “The government brought . . . revenues to date”: World Bank, “Chad-Cameroon Petroleum Development and Pipeline Project: Overview,” December 2006.

Pascal Yoadimnadji communiqué: N’djamena to Washington, April 15, 2006. Wall’s meeting with Déby and Ito, all quotations: N’djamena to Washington, April 15, 2006, and N’djamena to Washington, April 16, 2006.

N’djamena to Washington, April 26, 2006.

N’djamena to Washington, August 7, 2005.

Interview with Mahamat Hissène.

Ibid.

N’djamena to Washington, August 30, 2006.

All quotations, N’djamena to Washington, September 6, 2006. The embassy cable describing Barack Obama’s meeting with Idriss Déby was marked sensitive but unclassified when it was written; its contents were cleared at the time by Obama’s staff; and it was released without redactions in response to the author’s Freedom of Information Act request.

Interview with Mahamat Hissène. $281 million, lump sum within seven days: N’djamena to Washington, October 9, 2006, F.O.I.A. N’djamena to Washington, October 9, 2006 (W).

CHAPTER SEVENTEEN: “I PRAY FOR EXXON”

 

Jeff Alban et al. v. ExxonMobil Corp., 03-C-06-0101932OT, Baltimore County Circuit Court, Maryland, pleadings and trial testimony.

Quoted in plaintiffs’ opening statement, Alban v. ExxonMobil, ibid. Also, trial testimony of Dean Jerome, written logs from Jacksonville Exxon of January 13, 2006.

“A very big majority” and “working properly”: Trial testimony of David Schanberger, Alban v. ExxonMobil, op. cit.

All quotations, trial testimony of Russell Bowen, Alban v. ExxonMobil, ibid.

Ibid.

Trial testimony of Steven Polkey, ibid.

Talking points: Testimony of Russell Bowen, op. cit. Sign: Quoted in plaintiffs’ opening statement, op. cit.

Remediation sites: Cited in plaintiffs’ closing statement, Alban v. ExxonMobil, op. cit. That Exxon alone operated 62,000 sites three decades earlier: Fortune, April 23, 1990.

D. L. Clarke to Carmine DiBattista, bureau chief, Bureau of Air Management, state of Connecticut, January 27, 2003.

School grades, “I don’t think you could hire me”: “The Amazing Snyder-Man,” in Maryland Super Lawyers, 2008.

“How did I do?”: To author, Maryland Special Court of Appeals, January 3, 2011. “I just wish . . . never enough”: Baltimore Sun, April 29, 1999.

Baltimore Sun, ibid. Maryland Super Lawyers, op. cit.

Steve Tizard: Maryland Daily Record, March 30, 2009.

Plaintiffs’ opening statement, Alban v. ExxonMobil, op. cit.

All quotations, ibid.

All quotations, defendants’ opening statement, ibid.

All quotations, transcript of trial testimony, ibid.

All quotations, plaintiffs’ closing statement and defendants’ closing statement, ibid.

Baltimore Sun, March 12, 2009.

CHAPTER EIGHTEEN: “WE WILL NEED WITNESSES”

 

Remains and identity card discovered near Cluster II in 2005: Interviews with Kaharuddin’s widow and other relatives. Landscape and relatives searching: Author’s travels in Aceh and interviews with human rights researchers there and in Jakarta.

Interview with Hendra Fadli, the Banda Aceh–based coordinator for Kontras Aceh, a human rights research group that photographed and investigated the bones at the time of their discovery. The Indonesian magazine Tempo on June 21, 2007, quoted an Acehnese man, Saiful Bahri, as saying that he and his brother had been detained at the Supply Chain Building and that his brother remained missing. “We will need witnesses” is from the Tempo account.

“If we keep . . . bury everything”: Frontline, “Indonesia: After the Wave.” Documentary aired June 26, 2007. See “Extended Interviews” at http://www.pbs.org/frontlineworld/stories/indonesia605/interview_darmono.html.

See Chapter Four.

Size of Indonesian military deployments: Jakarta Post, September 9, 2002. Human rights violations: See annual U.S. State Department reports, as well as “Aceh Under Martial Law: Inside the Secret War,” Human Rights Watch, December 2003.

Author’s interview with Baharuddin.

Interview with a former employee familiar with the campaign.

All quotations, ibid.

Interviews with lawyers involved with the case: “It’s another one of those pesky . . .” E-mail from David P. Stewart to Frank M. Gafney, May 17, 2002, released under a Freedom of Information Act request.

Letter from William H. Taft IV, July 29, 2002, John Doe I et al. v. ExxonMobil Corporation et al., 01-cv-01357 United States District Court for the District of Columbia.

All quotations, transcript of status hearing, May 24, 2005, ibid.

All quotations, transcript of status hearing, May 1, 2006, ibid.

Kevin Murphy, ExxonMobil’s rollout of the O.I.M.S.-based new rules: Interviews with ExxonMobil executives involved. See “Framework on Security and Human Rights,” published after 2006 by ExxonMobil on its Web site. “It’s like implementing”: Interview with Arvind Ganesan.

“They wanted to grind us . . . two people”: Interview with Agniszka Fryszman.

Bill Scherer at the White House, what he was told: Interview with Terry Collingsworth (BVH).

All quotations from interviews with participants.

Memorandum & Opinion, July 18, 2008, Doe I v. ExxonMobil, op. cit.

CHAPTER NINETEEN: “THE CASH WATERFALL”

 

The account of the dueling art exhibitions is from interviews with a former ExxonMobil manager involved.

Caracas to Washington, March 4, 2004 (W).

All quotations, Caracas to Washington, August 11, 2004 (W).

Ibid.

BBC News, Hard Talk, June 14, 2010.

Associated Press, February 12, 2003. As of that time, Hugo Chavez had fired 11,917 out of 37,942 P.D.V.S.A. employees, according to a former executive, Juan Fernandez.

Losses and loan amounts: “Freezing Injunction,” Mobil Cerro Negro, Ltd. v. Petróleos de Venezuela, S.A., Claim no. 2008, Folio 61, January 24, 2008, High Court of Justice, Queen’s Bench Division, Commercial Court, Great Britain.

Caracas to Washington, January 12, 2005 (W). Associated Press, January 8, 2007.

Lee Raymond: Fair Disclosure transcript, ExxonMobil Corporation Analyst Meeting, March 10, 2004, New York. Rex Tillerson: “A Conversation on Energy Security,” Council on Foreign Relations, March 9, 2007. The quotation is in direct response to a question about Mexico, but follows similar comments about Venezuela and global energy security in general.

Ibid.

George W. Bush to Rex Tillerson: Interview with an individual familiar with reports of the conversation and ExxonMobil’s response.

Rex Tillerson, “A Conversation on Energy Security,” op. cit.

All oil and gasoline price statistics cited are from the U.S. Energy Information Administration.

Simmons, Twilight in the Desert.

Morse, “Low and Behold.”

Slides: Presentation by Stuart McGill, Goldman Sachs Global Energy Conference, January 11, 2005. Rex Tillerson: ExxonMobil Annual Shareholder Meeting, May 27, 2009.

$3 trillion windfall: Christof Ruehl, chief economist, British Petroleum, address at the World Bank, March 3, 2009. Oil expenditures as a percentage of gross domestic product: Henry Lee, “Oil Security and the Transportation Sector,” in Gallagher, Acting in Time on Energy Policy.

Associated Press, January 13, 2007.

Caracas to Washington, January 24, 2007 (W).

Interviews with former ExxonMobil executives and State Department officials. Also, Caracas to Washington, March 29, 2007 (W).

Caracas to Washington, May 25 and June 26, 2007 (W).

Interview with a former ExxonMobil manager.

Declaration of Hobart E. Plunkett, Mobil Cerro Negro v. PDVSA Cerro Negro, ibid.

Rex Tillerson: Fair Disclosure transcript, ExxonMobil Corporation Analyst Meeting, March 5, 2008, New York.

Interview with a former ExxonMobil manager.

“Complaint for Order of Attachment,” Mobil Cerro Negro. v. PDVSA Cerro Negro, op. cit.

Joseph D. Pizzurro, “Memorandum of Law of Defendant PDVSA . . . ” January 24, 2008, Mobil Cerro Negro v. PDVSA Cerro Negro, op. cit.

Ibid.

Declarations of Steven K. Davidson and J. R. Massey, December 27, 2007, Mobil Cerro Negro v. PDVSA Cerro Negro, op. cit.

Attorneys for ExxonMobil and P.D.V.S.A. provide slightly contradicting accounts of the minute-by-minute sequence of the bond repurchase closing and the service of freezing order papers; the account here is from a declaration of Mitchell Seider, of the ExxonMobil law firm Latham & Watkins, who was present in the Curtis conference room during the afternoon of December 28.

Pizzurro, “Memorandum of Law of Defendant PDVSA,” op. cit.

All quotations, “Oral Argument,” February 13, 2008, Mobil Cerro Negro v. PDVSA Cerro Negro, op. cit.

CHAPTER TWENTY: “MOONSHINE”

 

Text as delivered, CQ Transcript Wire, Washington Post, February 1, 2006.

In 2003, according to the Energy Information Administration, the United States consumed just under three gallons of gasoline per person per day. The rest of the industrialized world—mainly Europe—consumed less than half as much per person. Poorer countries consumed even less per person. American relative overconsumption has persisted since then—only the oil-rich, lightly populated emirates of the Persian Gulf come close, and even their profligate consumers guzzle less gasoline per person than Americans.

Rex Tillerson: Fortune, April 17, 2006.

Interview with a former Bush administration official.

Remarks by Rex Tillerson, Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, Washington, D.C., January 8, 2009.

Ibid.

Interviews with multiple ExxonMobil executives and former executives. It is not clear which year ExxonMobil first incorporated an assumption about carbon pricing in the United States into its forecasts, but it appears to have been around 2007, after the Democrats took control of the House of Representatives and began to gather momentum in anticipation of the 2008 presidential election.

“The Hydrogen Economy: Opportunities, Costs, Barriers and R&D Needs,” National Academy of Sciences Press, 2004.

Interview with Sally Benson.

“Hydrogen and Fuel Cells: Opportunities and Challenges,” slides presented in Brussels, Belgium, November 25, 2003, author’s files and www.exxonmobil.com/files/PA/Europe/Blewisfinal_Amcham.pdf.

Lee Raymond: Fair Disclosure transcript, ExxonMobil Corporation Analyst Meeting Overview, March 4, 2003. Michael B. McElroy, “The Ethanol Illusion,” Harvard Magazine, November–December 2006.

Appearing at a Cambridge Energy Research Associates conference in February 2007, Rex Tillerson said, speaking of ethanol, “I don’t know how much technology I can add to moonshine.”

Transcript of conference call with Emil Jacobs and genetic researcher J. Craig Venter, July 14, 2009.

Ken Cohen quotations: Interview with EurActiv, February 14, 2007. “We just ignored it”: Interview with an ExxonMobil executive.

All quotations, interview with the ExxonMobil executive, ibid.

All quotations, ibid.

Interview with a second executive involved.

CHAPTER TWENTY-ONE: “CAN’T THE C.I.A. AND THE NAVY SOLVE THIS PROBLEM?”

 

Eket landscape: Author’s research travel, 2009. ExxonMobil’s Nigerian production in 2006: Securities and Exchange Commission filings. Kidnapping narrative: Aberdeen Evening Express, Aberdeen Press and Journal, The Scotsman, Sunday Express, Daily Mail, October 4, 2006 to October 23, 2006.

Energy Information Administration import statistics, 2006–2008.

Chaplin perspective and quotations: Lagos to Washington, December 7, 2004; September 9, 2005; February 26, 2006; and March 12, 2007 (W).

Lagos to Washington, March 12, 2007, ibid.

Interview with John Campbell. Also Abuja to Washington, June 17, 2008 (W).

This Day (Nigeria), March 10, 2006.

Lagos to Washington, March 17 and March 31, 2006 (W).

Interviews with Chief Samingo Etukakban and Chief Nduese Essien in Akwa Ibom. Lagos to Washington, May 3, 2006 (W).

Graeme Buchan spoke at a press conference in Scotland after his release, as reported in the Daily Telegraph, October 23, 2006. “Uneasy”: Interview with a State Department official. “Fidgety”: Lagos to Washington, May 3, 2006 (W).

Interview with Victor Attah.

Sunday Express, October 22, 2006.

Interview with Victor Attah.

Interview with a senior State Department official.

Paula Smith: Sunday Express, op. cit. Paul Smith: Press conference, as reported in the Aberdeen Evening Express, October 23, 2006.

http://hdr.undp.org/en/reports/global/hdr2006/.

Washington Post, February 12, 2009. Also, United States of America v. Jason Edward Steph, United States District Court, Southern District of Texas, H-07-307, indictment filed July 19, 2007.

All quotations, author’s interview with a Western diplomat in Nigeria.

From the outstanding report on Delta militancy authored by Stephen Davis for the Coventry Cathedral: “The Potential for Peace and Reconciliation in the Niger Delta,” February 2009.

Interview with an American official.

Interviews with two senior security consultants in Lagos who serve the international oil industry.

Estimates from participants in “Nigeria: Prospects for Peace in the Niger Delta,” Center for Strategic and International Studies, June 15, 2009.

Abuja to Washington, September 9, 2005.

All quotations, remarks by Rex Tillerson, Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, January 8, 2009.

Azaiki, Oil, Gas and Life in Nigeria, p. 51.

When I traveled to conduct research in Akwa Ibom during 2009, I was hosted by Nigerian House of Representatives member Esseme Eyiboh. We shared the protection of a single Mobil Police gunman for several days. The policeman had a flying Pegasus emblazoned on the breast pocket of his uniform.

Godswill Akpabio supporters, Qua Iboe landscape: Author’s travels. Spy police lawsuit: Globe and Mail, November 22, 2004.

Interviews with Esseme Eyiboh and Nduese Essien.

Interviews with Victor Attah and Nduese Essien.

Remarks at the Woodrow Wilson Center, op. cit.

Godswill Akpabio: “Words That Build a Nation,” op. cit. U.S. official and Esseme Eyiboh: Author’s interviews.

Jendayi Frazer, Keynote address, Gulf of Guinea Maritime Safety and Security Ministerial Conference, November 15, 2006, Cotonou, Benin.

Interview with Connie Newman.

Lagos to Washington, March 31, 2006; May 12 and June 18, 2007.

Interviews with U.S. officials.

Lagos to Washington, February 23, 2010 (W).

Interview with a security consultant in Lagos.

All quotations, history of U.S. aid, piracy statistics: From author’s interviews with multiple U.S. officials and corporate security specialists who worked on the subjects described after 2006.

Lagos to Washington, June 3, 2008, and January 15, 2009. Abuja to Washington, November 26, 2008 (W).

Interviews with U.S. officials.

Ojo Maduekwe: Center for Strategic and International Studies event, op. cit. Theresa Whelan: Testimony before the Subcommittee on National Security and Foreign Affairs of the House Committee on Oversight and Government Reform, July 15, 2008.

Interview with Major General Michael Snodgrass.

Lagos to Washington, September 19, 2008 (W).

Interview with an officer at Africa Command.

All quotations, author’s interviews with U.S. officials.

CHAPTER TWENTY-TWO: “A PERSON WOULD HAVE TO EAT MORE THAN 3,400 RUBBER DUCKS”

 

ExxonMobil 10-K, 2007.

New York Times Magazine, December 9, 2001.

http://www.hcra.harvard.edu, examined and typed, January 30, 2011.

“Hazard Index”: ExxonMobil PowerPoint presentation. Interview with Paul Thacker (MR).

“Phthalates 101”: PowerPoint presentation left by ExxonMobil lobbyists with Capitol Hill offices, circa 2008. Also, ExxonMobil’s “Response to CPSC’s Request for Information,” January 12, 2009. The author is grateful for the outstanding work of Megha Rajagopalan, who obtained these and other materials, and conducted many of the background interviews cited.

To see the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Fact Sheet on phthalates, which contains links to its exposure studies, see http://www.cdc.gov/exposurereport/Phthalates_FactSheet.htm.

For an accessible but detailed review of scientific research into the health effects of phthalates in plastics, see the Congressional Research Service Report for Congress, “Phthalates in Plastics and Possible Human Health Effects,” updated July 29, 2008.

Memorandom to Michael A. Babich, Consumer Product Safety Commission, August 31, 1998.

“Phthalates 101,” op. cit.

“No risk reduction”: ExxonMobil, “Approach to Cumulative Risk,” op. cit. “Politics”: “Phthalates 101,” ibid.

Interview with a San Francisco regulator.

Interview with Gretchen Lee Salter (MR).

Interview with Virginia Lyons (MR). ‘They’re going to ban Gumby!”: Interview with Sarah Uhl, Clean Water Action, Hartford, Connecticut (MR).

Mattel recall: New York Times, August 2, 2007.

Interview with Liz Hitchcock (MR).

Halperin and Harris, The Way to Win, pp. 206–8.

Wall Street Journal, May 27, 2006. Also, interviews with individuals familiar with the 2005 energy legislation episode.

Interview with a conference participant.

“Six old white guys . . . not to budge”: All quotations from interviews with congressional staff involved.

Interview with Liz Hitchcock (MR).

Interview with Janet Nudelman (MR).

All quotations, interviews with participants.

All dates and contribution amounts from Federal Election Commission records.

CHAPTER TWENTY-THREE: “WE MUST END THE AGE OF OIL”

 

Ann O’Hanlon invested extraordinary time and effort to analyze and collate Federal Election Commission records to document the insights about ExxonMobil’s political strategy relied upon in this chapter.

Interview with an ExxonMobil executive.

Interview with the consultant quoted, as well as interviews with other individuals familiar with ExxonMobil’s Washington strategies.

Interviews with individuals familiar with ExxonMobil’s Political Action Committee.

“Electing people”: From Citizen Action Team mailings provided by recipients, author’s files.

The Tonight Show with Jay Leno, August 1, 2008.

National Public Radio, August 5, 2008, www.npr.org.

Interview with Jason Grumet.

“It’s not going to be easy”: Transcript of MSNBC Democratic debate, February 26, 2008. “Think about that . . . outrageous”: Associated Press, June 9, 2008.

“Oil company wish list”: Politics USA, July 31, 2008. “Is of economic significance”: Interview with Jason Grumet. “We must end the age of oil”: Barack Obama used this formulation on the campaign trail a number of times between the spring and summer of 2008. Among them: ABC News, August 5, 2008.

“We felt like a candidate”: Interview with an ExxonMobil executive. Maurice Hinchey: Newhouse Newspapers, February 26, 2008.

New York Times, July 19, 2008.

ABC News, August 13, 2008.

ExxonMobil’s effective corporate tax rate of 47 percent in 2009 was among the highest among large corporations.

Third presidential debate, New York Times, October 15, 2008.

All quotations, interviews with Bennett Freeman.

Interviews with individuals familiar with ExxonMobil’s deliberations. Tillerson said later: Rex Tillerson’s remarks at the Woodrow Wilson Center for International Scholars, January 8, 2009.

CHAPTER TWENTY-FOUR: “ARE WE OUT? OR IN?”

 

The portrait of Anton Smith is drawn from interviews with diplomats, nonprofit activists, human rights activists, business representatives, government officials, and other individuals in Equatorial Guinea and the United States. His views are also contained in the series of analytical cables Smith composed early in 2009.

U.S. companies invested $13 billion: Malabo to Washington, February 27, 2009.

“Torture Is Rife . . .”: http://www.un.org/apps/news/story.asp?NewsID=28998&Cr=torture&Cr1=rapporteur.

Interviews with people familiar with Anton Smith’s tour in Malabo, op. cit.

All quotations are from the linked series of cables, Malabo to Washington, February 27, 2009; March 3, 2009; March 10, 2009; March 12, 2009; March 30, 2009; and May 21, 2009.

Wald meeting, “Shared responsibility”: Washington to Yaounde, June 24, 2005. Cindy Courville, “because of market forces”: Yaounde to Washington, March 29, 2006. “our best ally”: Malabo to Washington, November 23, 2006. “lengthy and effusive”: Youande to Washington, October 6, 2006. These cables were released to the author in response to a Freedom of Information Act request.

All quotations, interview with Francisco Nugua.

Interviews with Africans and other sources familiar with Israel’s defense consulting in the region. Israeli aid to the Joint Task Force in the Niger Delta is described in Lagos to Washington, February 23, 2009 (W).

Interview with an adviser to Equatorial Guinea familiar with the meetings.

Interviews with several advisers to Equatorial Guinea and other individuals familiar with the Israeli arrangements.

Ibid.

Interviews with individuals familiar with Equatorial Guinea’s Washington strategy. Check for $4 million: Yaounde to Washington, February 22, 2006.

Background to the meeting, negotiations about visibility: Interviews with people familiar with Equatorial Guinea’s Washington strategy. All quotations from the private meeting with Condoleezza Rice: Washington to Yaounde, April 18, 2006.

Spokesmen for Marathon and Hess declined comment.

ExxonMobil Corp. Regional Oil Spill Response Plan—Offshore Operations, Appendix K, “Media,” p. K-34.

Simeon L. Moats, ExxonMobil Corporation, “Business Practices & Transparency,” PowerPoint presentation, September 28, 2006.

Interview with an ExxonMobil executive.

Ibid.

Teodoro Obiang Nguema acknowledged forty-two children: Malabo to Washington, March 10, 2009. Field of Dreams, Gabriel Obiang’s development plans: Interviews with individuals familiar with Gabriel’s statements and thinking.

Global Witness, “Undue Diligence: How Banks Do Business with Corrupt Regimes,” March 2009. United States Senate, Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations, Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs: “Keeping Foreign Corruption Out of the United States, Four Case Histories,” Majority and Minority Staff Report, February 4, 2010.

Interview with a lawyer who worked with Teodoro Obiang.

Lily Panayotti v. Sweetwater Management, Inc., Los Angeles County Superior Court, West District, SC-099588. Veronique Guillem v. Sweetwater Management, Inc., Los Angeles County Superior Court, West District, SC-104747. Dragan Deletic v. Sweetwater Management, Inc. Los Angeles County Superior Court, West District, SC-104745.

All quotations from, “Keeping Foreign Corruption Out,” op. cit.

This account is drawn primarily from interviews with individuals familiar with the February 17 attack. Also, BBC reporting on the events, February 17 through February 24, 2009.

Interview with an ExxonMobil executive.

Human Rights Watch, “Well Oiled: Oil and Human Rights in Equatorial Guinea,” July 9, 2009.

Letter from Ken Cohen to Human Rights Watch, May 4, 2009, attached as an appendix to “Well Oiled,” ibid.

CHAPTER TWENTY-FIVE: “IT’S NOT MY MONEY TO TITHE”

 

All of Tillerson’s quotations are from his remarks at the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, January 8, 2009, recorded and transcribed.

ExxonMobil’s review after 2006: Interviews with executives involved. Task Force: Interview with Elaine Kamarck (AO).

“We had determined . . . baggage”: Interview with an ExxonMobil executive.

All Tillerson quotations from the Woodrow Wilson Center appearance, op. cit.

Interview with Carol Browner.

Ibid., and interviews with other Obama advisers involved. Abu Dhabi to Washington, April 13, 2009 (W).

Remarks by Rex Tillerson at Ford’s Theatre, February 11, 2009, recorded and transcribed.

Ibid.

“Why wouldn’t the administration want”: Interview with an ExxonMobil executive. “He was just shopping the idea”: Interview with a participant in the meeting.

Interview with a former Bush administration official involved in the transition briefings.

Canadian exports to the United States, Alberta reserve estimates cited by Oil & Gas Journal: From the U.S. Energy Information Administration.

For an excellent account of the issues and manufacturing processes involving sands oil, see Robert Kunzig, “Scraping Bottom,” National Geographic, March 2009.

“Produce as much of this oil as you can,” the map of North America prepared for Barack Obama: Interview with a Canadian official involved.

Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, February 17, 2009.

“The Canadian Oil Sands: Energy Security vs. Climate Change,” Council on Foreign Relations Special Report No. 47, May 2009.

Interview with an industry lobbyist.

“don’t want B.S.”: Interview with an ExxonMobil executive.

Interview with a House staff member involved with energy legislation.

Interviews with multiple participants at the White Oak conference. Tony Kreindler and Sherri Stuewer: Interview with Tony Kreindler (AO). ExxonMobil did not respond to requests for comment.

Presentations by Walter McKibbin, Adele Morris, and Peter Wilcoxen, “The Economic Impact of Climate Change Reduction Strategies,” Brookings Institution, June 8, 2009.

Hart Research Associates, “Energy and Climate Change Policy: A Survey Among American Voters Conducted September 2009 for U.S. Climate Task Force,” slide deck obtained by the author.

Scene and all quotations, Clinton Global Initiative, September 23, 2009.

Scene and quotation, Economic Club of Washington, October 1, 2009.

CHAPTER TWENTY-SIX: “WE’RE CONFIDENT YOU CAN BOOK THE RESERVES”

 

The 2004 Iraq Reconstruction and Rehabilitation Fund appropriated by Congress provided $4 billion over three years to repair Iraq’s oil and electricity infrastructure following the looting that occurred during the U.S.-led invasion. The amount was not nearly enough to account for the decay in Iraq’s oil industry during Saddam Hussein’s rule, but it was intended, a U.S. General Accounting Office official said in an interview, to “jump-start” the industry’s reconstruction.

Interview with an American official involved. The account of the Al-Rashid auction and Richard Vierbuchen’s role is from interviews with ExxonMobil executives, State Department and White House officials involved with Iraq oil policy during the Bush administration and the Obama administration, and contemporary news coverage of the auction. For the auction scene in the Al-Rashid ballroom, see ReutersVideo, June 29, 2009, among other sources: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5pBjh1iOnss.

Interview with an American official who was present at the meeting and who recorded the minister’s comments in handwritten notes. Muttitt, Fuel on the Fire, p. 214, quotes from minutes obtained under a Freedom of Information Act request.

Author’s interview.

The account of American oil policy after the invasion is drawn in part from extensive interviews with five American officials who worked on Iraqi oil policy at the Coalition Provisional Authority and its successors in Baghdad, as well as diaries and contemporary records describing their work.

All quotations, author’s interviews.

“Transformative” Program: Baghdad to Washington, August 26, 2009 (W).

Bearing Point report: “Options for Developing a Long Term Sustainable Iraqi Oil Industry.” Sector study presented to U.S.A.I.D., December 19, 2003. Quotations from interviews with an American official involved.

Interview with Philip J. Carroll.

Chevron: From contemporaneous records provided to the author. Norm Szydlowski: Author’s interview.

Interview with Rob McKee.

Interview with Ashti A. Hawrami, K.R.G. minister of natural resources. “Oil and Gas Rights of Regions and Governorates,” June 12, 2006, Kurdish Regional Government Web site: http://www.krg.org/articles/detail.asp?smap=02010100&lngnr=12&asnr=&anr=18704&rnr=223.

Interviews with an American official involved.

“We do not seek advice”: E-mail from Jeanne Phillips to Ben Lando, October 11, 2007. Also, e-mail from Hunt executive David McDonald after a meeting with State Department officials, cited by Senator Carl Levin in a letter to Bush administration national security adviser Stephen Hadley, quotes McDonald as concluding that the Bush administration had “no policy, neither for nor against.” George W. Bush: CBS News, June 26, 2009.

The New York Times and the Norwegian newspaper Dagens Naeringsliv first reported on Peter Galbraith’s Kurdish oil holdings in 2009. “I should have stated”: “A Statement by Peter W. Galbraith,” New York Review of Books, January 14, 2010.

Interview with an American official who worked with Meghan O’Sullivan during her Hess consultancy. Also, O’Sullivan’s published online biography at Harvard University.

Baghdad to Washington, June 30, 2009 (W).

All quotations, notes from background briefings provided by ExxonMobil executives in Washington, D.C., obtained by the author.

Baghdad to Washington, August 26, 2009 (W).

Deutsche Bank: Muttitt, op. cit., p. 326. Also, Baghdad to Washington, November 15, 2009 and January 5, 2010 (W). Agreement details, crossed threshold: Interviews with State Department officials who have worked with ExxonMobil on its Iraq investments, background briefings by ExxonMobil executives, and materials published for investors by ExxonMobil.

Rob Franklin: “Exxon Exec Optimistic in Iraq Entry,” Iraq Oil Report, February 4, 2010.

CHAPTER TWENTY-SEVEN: “ONE PLUS ONE HAS GOT TO EQUAL THREE”

 

Fort Worth Star-Telegram, April 2, 2006, and December 15, 2009.

Interview with Jack Randall.

Ibid., as well as disclosures made by both corporations to the Securities and Exchange Commission about their negotiations, Form S-4, ExxonMobil Corporation, February 1, 2010.

Form S-4, ibid., p. 96.

Interview with Jack Randall, Form S-4, ibid., pp. 39–49. Also, TendersInfo, December 16, 2009.

Rex Tillerson’s testimony to Subcommittee on Energy and Environment, House Energy and Commerce Committee, January 20, 2010.

Interview with Jack Randall.

Ibid.

TendersInfo, op. cit.

Interviews with industry executives and researchers.

“Meeting Gas Supply and Demand in a Deregulated Environment,” PowerPoint presentation, Gas Technology Institute.

Alan Greenspan’s testimony to the House Energy and Commerce Committee, June 10, 2003.

Transcript from ExxonMobil’s Analyst Meeting, March 9, 2011.

Interviews with executives and analysts familiar with ExxonMobil’s natural gas strategy. Gold: Wall Street Journal, July 10, 2009.

New York Times (Deal Book Blog), December 14, 2009.

Conference call transcript, December 14, 2009, produced by ExxonMobil and filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission.

Form S-4, op. cit.; for consulting agreements and compensation, see p. 94.

Business Wire, February 15, 2011.

“Doubts About Shale Plays: Implications of ExxonMobil Acquisition of XTO Energy,” Society of Petroleum Evaluation Engineers, February 2010.

New York Times, July 30, 2010.

Transcript from Chevron Corporation’s 2011 Security Analyst Meeting, March 14, 2011.

Interview with Mark Gilman.

Barclays valuation: Form S-4, op. cit., p. 58. Interviews with former ExxonMobil executives and consultants.

Transcript from ExxonMobil’s Analyst Meeting, March 9, 2011, op. cit.

The Oil Drum, February 22, 2010.

Memo obtained by the author. Also, interviews with former ExxonMobil executives familiar with the discussions after the XTO deal.

Business Wire, February 16, 2009.

Financial Times, February 16, 2011.

Promise to increase production: Fortune, July 28, 2006. Actual production in 2009: ExxonMobil 10-K, filed February 26, 2010.

Interviews by Ann O’Hanlon with eight students and World Affairs Council staff who participated.

“The Future of Energy and the Role of Corporate Citizenship,” remarks by Rex Tillerson, April 19, 2010.

“Deep Water: The Gulf Oil Disaster and the Future of Offshore Drilling.” Report to the President, National Commission on the B.P. Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling, January 2011, p. 4.

CHAPTER TWENTY-EIGHT: “IT JUST HAPPENED”

 

Safina, A Sea in Flames, pp. 37–43, and “Deep Water: The Gulf Oil Disaster and the Future of Offshore Drilling,” Report to the President, National Commission on the B.P. Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling, January 2011, pp. 8–17.

“Deep Water,” ibid., p. vii.

Ibid., p. 23.

Ibid., pp. 25–26.

Ibid., pp. 28–29.

Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act: Ibid., pp. xl and 58.

U.S. Department of the Interior News, November 20, 2008: http://www.boemre.gov/ooc/press/2008/pressDOI1120.htm

New York Times, June 20, 2010.

WEST Engineering Services, “Shear Ram Capabilities Study for U.S. Minerals Management Service,” September 2004.

“Long-term consequences . . . moratorium”: 2008 Obama campaign speech in Florida as quoted in A Sea in Flames, p. 46. “I don’t agree . . . very advanced”: “Remarks by the President in the Discussion on Jobs and the Economy in Charlotte, North Carolina,” April, 2, 2010: http://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/remarks-president-a-discussion-jobs-and-economy-charlotte-north-carolina.

“Gulf of Mexico Regional Oil Spill Response Plan,” ExxonMobil developed by The Response Group, filed with M.M.S.

Hearing on “Drilling Down on America’s Energy Future: Safety, Security, and Clean Energy,” Subcommittee on Energy and Environment, June 15, 2010.

Testimony of Rex Tillerson, ibid.

Chairman Bart Stupak’s Opening Statement, ibid.

Ibid.

“For us . . . cheaper”: Chief Executive, April 1, 2001.

National Commission on the B.P. Deepwater Horizon, pp. 50–51, op. cit.

Bower, Oil, p. 350.

New York Times, May 8, 2010.

ABC News, May 27, 2010.

Safina, A Sea in Flames, p. 16.

National Commission on the B.P. Deepwater Horizon, op. cit.

Testimony of Rex Tillerson, Hearing on “Drilling Down on America’s Energy Future” op. cit.

Notes from the Center for Strategic and International Studies dinner, provided to the author by a participant.

Reuters, January 6, 2011.

“Drilling Down on America’s Energy Future,” op. cit.

Ibid.

Stern, “Stern Review: The Economics of Climate Change,” 2007 (final).

http://www.climatecentral.org/blogs/climate-in-context-bps-energy-outlook-shines-light-on-future-for-carbon/.

CNN, July 2, 2011.

Baltimore Sun, July 1, 2011.

Associated Press, July 8, 2011; Jakarta Post, August 9, 2011. “nothing to do”: E-mail from spokesman David Eglinton to Upstreamonline.com.

U.S. Geological Survey Newsroom, July 23, 2008.

National Snow and Ice Data Center, Arctic Sea Ice News, nside.org.

“scary to utter”: New York Times, August 30, 2011.

Ibid., August 19, 2011.

Negative $5.7 trillion: figure calculated using “Monthly Receipts, Outlays, and Deficit or Surplus, Fiscal Years 1981–2010,” published by the Financial Management Service. Positive $493 billion: ExxonMobil 10-Ks, 2000 to 2010, and 10-Q for the second quarter of 2011. The merger closed November 30, 1999. The corporation’s operating cash flow for December 1999 and the period from July 1 to August 5, 2011, is extrapolated from the average monthly rates of 2000 and the first six months of 2011, respectively.

Previous: ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
Next: BIBLIOGRAPHY